MODULE ONE
PRINCIPLE OF MUSIC & SOUND				.   Fullness versus Thinness	22
							.   Spaciousness		22
Complex Sounds  (1)			1		.   Nearness			22
Basic Properties of Simple Sounds	2		.   Absence of Extraneous
Complex Sounds  (2)			3		    Sounds			23
Phase					3		.   Loudness			23
Spectrum				5	Hearing or Vision			23	
Sound Species				6	Stereophonic Imaging			23
	.   Periodic			6	Nature Difference Between Two
	.   Percussive			6	Channels				26
	.   Synthesized			7		.   Time Defference		26
Dimension of Sound			7		.   Sound Effects		27
Sound Reflection and Absorption	8			.   Two Independent Channel 
Interference				8		    Usage			28
Diffraction				11		.   Effect of Listener Position	28
Refraction				12		.   Stereo Image Quality and
Resonance				14		    Spaciousness		28
Hearing					15		.   Special Role of the 
	.   Anatomy of the Ear		15		     Loudspeaker		28
Psychoacoustics and the Dimension		Sound in Rooms				29
of Hearing				17		.   Percedence Effect and the
	.   Loudness			17		    Law of the First Wavefront	29
	.   Loudness as a Function of			.   Binaural Discrimination	29
	    Frequency and Amplitude	18	__________________________________________
	.   Loudness as a Function of   
	    Bandwidth			18		       MODULE TWO
	.   Loudness as a Function of			      ARCHITECTURAL 
	    Duration			18		        ACOUSTIC
	.   Measuring the Loudness of			       PRINCIPLES	
	    Complex Sounds		18	
Masking					19	Sound Spectrum				31
	.   Simultaneous Masking	19	Propagation				32
	.   Temporal Masking		19	Directivity				32
Acoustic Reflex				20	Sound Buildup Within A Space		32
Pitch					20	Sound Absorption			32
Timber,  Sound Quality and 			Friction Absorption			33
Perceptual Dimension			21	Resonant Panels				33
	.   Clarity or Definition	21	Cavity Resonators			34
	.   Sharpness or Hardness		Reverberation				34
	    versus Softness		22	Reverberation Time			35
	.   Brightness versus Darkness	22	Analog & Digital Sounds			36

Wave Shapes  ( Analog )			36	__________________________________________
ADSR					37
Effects					38	               MODULE FOUR
Digital Sounds				38	             AUDIO SPECTRUM 
__________________________________________		           AND
               					        SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS
              




              MODULE THREE			 
           MUSIC FUNDAMENTALS	         	__________________________________________

Musical  Scales				41	Introduction and Review			59
Musical Theory				43	The Production and Mixing of
Scales					43	Electrical Oscillations			59
Intervals				44	The Nature of Oscillations		60
	.   Whole Step			44	Signals  and  Spectra			66
	.   Half Step			45	Signal Energy and Power			67
Music Composition			46	Sinusoid and Phasor Representation	67
Rhythm					46	Line Spectrum				69
Drum & Percussion Instrument			Fourier-Series Analysis			70
Key Assignments  (PSR-400/500)		47	Numerical Computation of Fourier
Melody					48	Coefficients				75
Polyphony				48	Example 4-1				76
Voice/Polyphony List			49	Computer Programming			77
Harmony  ( Accompaniment )		49	Printout of the Program			79
Chord  ( Accord )			50	Discrete Fourier Series			79
Chord, Abbreviation, Normal Voicing	51	Spectral Density and Fourier
Time					52	Transformation				80
Rests					53	Impulsive Signal			81
Ties					53	Compensation Networks			82
Tempo					54	Phase-Lead Network			82
	.   Allegro			54	Phase-Lag Network			83
	.   Moderato			54	Equivalent Noise Bandwidth		85
	.   Andante or Largo		54	Thermal Noise				86
Binary Meter				54	__________________________________________
Style Lists of  4/4, 2/2, 3/4 and 6/8	55
Ternary Meters				55		        MODULE
Other Meters				57			 FIVE
Resolution  ( Quantization )		57		      TRANSISTORS
Musical Notation			58		     (BJT and FETS)
__________________________________________	__________________________________________






Bipolar Junction Transistor  (BJT)	87	Feedback Amplifier			117
Modes of Transistor Operation		87		.   Negative Feedback Amplifier	117
Large Signal Current Gains		88		.   Positive Feedback Amplifier	117
More About Transistors			91	Properties of Feedback Amplifier
A Complete Amplifier			92	Topologies				117
DC and AC Models			93		.   The Shunt-Shunt Amplifier	118
The BJT Small-Signal Models		94		.   The Series-Series Amplifier	118
The Low-Frequency Model			94		.   The Shunt-Series Amplifier	119
Transistor Hybrid Equivalent Circuit	95		.   The Series-Shunt Amplifier	119
	.   z-Parameters		95	Impedance in Feedback Amplifiers	121
	.   y-Parameters		95		.   Input Resistance		121
	.   s-Parameters		96		.   Output Resistance		121
More About h-Parameters			97		Important Characters of Feedback
Graphical Determination of			Amplifiers				122
h-Parameters				99		.   Desensitivity		122
The BJT as a Switch			105		.   Nonlinear Distortion	122
The Emitter-Coupled Pair		106		.   Noise Reduction		122
	.   Differential Mode		106		.   Stability			122
	.   Common Mode			106	Power Amplifiers			123
	.   CMRR			106		.   Power Output		123
Single Stage Configuration		107		.   Harmonic Distortion		123
	.   The  CE  Configuration	107	Amplifier Classifications		124
	.   The  CC  Configuration	108		.   Class A			124
	.   The  CB  Configuration	108		.   Class B 			124
Waveform for a Sinusoidal Input		109		.   Class AB			124
Current Mirrors				111		.   Class C			124
Voltage Control Amplifier		112	Class B (Push-Pull) Amplifier		125
Important Transistor Circuit			Field-Effect Transistors (FETs)		126
Parameters				114	JFET Operation				127
	.   Input Resistance		114	The JFET Transistor Characteristics	128
	.   Output Resistance		114	MOSFET Circuit Symbols			129
	.   Gain			114	Small-Signal FET Models			130
	.   Maximum Power Dissipation	114	The MOSFET as a Resistance		130
	.   Maximum Collector Current	114	The FET as a Swtich			131
	.   Maximum Output Voltage 		The FET as an Amplifier			132
	    Rating			114	FET Circuit as a Current Source		133
	.   Avalanche Breakdown		114	FET Amplifier Stages			133
	.   Punch - Through		115	Small - Signal Equivalent Circuit	134
	.   The Operation Point		115	FET Differential Amplifier 		134
	.   Temperature Stability	115	Semiconductor Manufacturers		136
	.   Rise Time			115	and					
	.   Fall Time			116	Device Specifications			137
	.   The Parameter  fT		116	__________________________________________





	       MODULE SIX			Hartley Oscillator			180
	   FILTERS (PASSIVE)			Crystal Oscillator			181
___________________________________________	Series-Resonant Circuit			183
						Parallel-Resonant Circuit		184
Passive Filters				147	Circuit Ideas				185
Ideal Frequency-Selective 			Unijunction Oscillator (UJT)		186
Low-Pass Filter				149	Unijunction Transistor List (UJTs)	190
The Universal Class of Higher 			Circuit Ideas				190
Degrees					151	Electronic Sirens			193
Butterworth (Maximally Flat)			Electronic Congo			194
Approximation				151	Passive Noise Reduction			194
Chebychev  (Equiripple) 				.   Mains Hum Filter for Audio
Approximation				155		    Circuits			194
Reversed Chebychev Approximation	159	A Simple AF Filter			195	    
Elliptic Approximation			160	Hum Reduction Circuits			196
Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic		High-Quality Noise Filter		197
Approximation				162	___________________________________________
Relation Between Magnitude, Phase/		 	     MODULE EIGHT
Delay With Zeros and Poles		162	     OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP-AMPs)
	.   Application			162	
Minimum Phase Filter and 			Op-Amps					199
Relationship Between Magnitude			The Ideal Op-Amp			200
Characteristic,  Phase / Delay		162	The Two-Stage Architecture		201
Monotonic Delay Characteristic 			Different Kinds of Op-Amp Usage	
Approximation				163	in Filters				202
All-Pass Delay Filter (Delay Line)	164	Other Important Op-Amp Internal
Example 6-1				165	Stages					203
Example 6-2				166		.   The Gain Stage With Active
Arbitrary Delay Characteristic				    Load			203	
Approximation				167		.   The Differential Stage	204	    
Subtractive Tone Forming		168		.   DC Level Shifting		205
___________________________________________		.   The  VBE  Multiplier	205
                 MODULE SEVEN				.   Output Stage		205
         INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE CIRCUITS	A Closer Look				207
						Some Important Op-Amp Rules		208
Active Filters				173	Frequency Response and 
Transistor Circuits			173	Compensation				209
Transistor Oscillators			174		.   Internal Compensation       210-A
Transistor Phase-Shift Oscillator	175		.   Miller-Effect Compensation  210-B
FET Phase-Shift Oscillator		177	Slew Rate			        211-A
The LC Tuned Oscillator Circuit		178	Effect of Selw Rate on an Input 
Transistor Collpitts Oscillator		179	Signal				        211-B





Offset Voltage and Currents             212-A   	General Description		238
Typical Performance of Selected			Power Supply				241
Op-Amp Types			        213-A	Portable Stereo Cassette Tape
Practical Op-Amp Circuits	        213-B	Amplifier				242
Other Types of Op-Amps			215	___________________________________________
	.   Single-Stage Architecture   215		        MODULE NINE
	.   Instrumentation Amplifier   215	              IC POWER SUPPLY                 
The Operational Transconductance		
Amplifier			        216-A	A Complete Power Supply 
MOS Operational Amplifier	        216-B	Performance				245
NMOS Circuits			        216-B	Circuit					246
CMOS Op-Amps		        	216-B	Assembly				248
Some Op-Amp Limitations	         	217-A	IC Voltage Regulators			250
Some Guidelines for Operational			Three-Terminal Voltage Regulators	250
Amplifier Circuits		        218-A	Example 1				253
Op-Amps in Application	         	219-A	Practical Power Supplies		254
Voltage and Current-Summing 			___________________________________________
Amplifiers			        219-B		      MODULE TEN
Summing Block		        	219-B	        WHY USE ACTIVE FILTERS?       
The Integrator			        220-B
Op-Amp Oscillator Circuits		221	Why Use Active Filters			257
Colpitts Oscillator			222	Types Of Active-Filter Circuits		258
Crystal Oscillator			223	Some Terms & Concepts			261
Wien-Bridge Oscillator			223		.   Cutoff Frequency		261
Sine-Wave Oscillator Pendulum		225		.   Damping			261
Commercially Available Op-Amps		227		.   Normalization		261
Introduction To :  Two Versatile			.   Order			261
Op-Amps					227		.   Q				261
LM381 - Low Noise Preamplifier		227		.   Scaling			261
Introduction				227		.   Sensitivity			262
Circuit Description			229		.   Shape Option		262
The LM3900 - A New Current-				.   Transfer Function		262
Differencing Op-Amp			231	Which Op-Amp?				262
Preface					231	Circuit Description			272
An Introduction To The Norton 			Compensation Consideration		272
Amplifier				231	Preamplifier Circuits			274
Introduction To The Application				.   Signal Amplification	275
Of The LM3900				233		.   Impedance Matching		275
IC TBA 810				234		.   Equalization		275
Multiple AMplifier System		236		.   Additional Facilities	275
Single-IC Stereo Amplifier Using				.   Dolby NR		275
LM 379					237			.   Loudness		275




		.   Surround		275	Designing Active High-Pass Filters	316
		.   Cro2-Metal / Normal	276	Electronic Music			321
		.   X-Bass / Mega-Bass	276	Modifiers				321
		.   Mono / Stereo	276	Simple Wah-Wah Unit			321
Circuits Using Transistors		277	Formant Filtering			323
Mixers					279	Voltage-Controlled Filters (VCF)	323
Filters					279	___________________________________________
Suitability Of ICs			280		    MODULE TWELVE
ICs For Preamps				280	          AUDIO EQUALIZERS                
LM348, 349, 381, 382			281
Electronic Gong				283	Audio Equalizers			325
A Simple Op-Amp Examiner		283	Super Simple Graphic Equalizer		326
____________________________________________	6-Band Graphic Equalizer		328
	    MODULE ELEVEN			10-Band Graphic Equalizer		330
           OREDERED FILTERS                  	The Circuit				333 
						Construction				333
Ordered Filters				285	Checking and Fault Finding		335
First- and Second-Order Networks	285	___________________________________________
Normalization and Scaling		285		  MODULE THIRTEEN
First-Order Low- and High-Pass 			    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS
Section					287
Second-Order Low-Pass Section		292	Digital Circuits			339
Second-Order Bandpass Section		295	The Binary System			339
Second-Order High-Pass Section		298	Switching Circuits & Binary Signals	339
Other Second-Order Responses		300	Two-Input Circuits,  ICs		340
Reactance Variable Inversions		301	IC Digital Logic Families		343
	.   The Conversion of  S = s/b	302	Positive and Negative Logics		345
	.   Example 10-1		302	Special Characteristics			346
	.   The Conversion of  S = B/s	302	Example 12-1				347
	.   The Conversion of  			Fan-In					347
	    S = (s2+w02) / Bs		303	Power Dissipation			348
	.   The Conversion of			Speed Of Operation			348
	    S = Bs / (s2+w02)		304	Noise Margin				349
CG-GC  Transformation			305	Input and Output Limits			349
RLC-CRD  Transformation			306	Transistor Inverter			350
Higher Order Low-Pass Filters		307	IC Logic Devices			350
Higher Order Bandpass Filters		311	Transistor-Transistor-Logic (TTL)	351
Ringing Electronic Bells		312	CMOS Logic Circuits			353
Percussion Generators			313	Integrated Injection Logic (I2L)	354
Examples				314	Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)		355
Higher Order High-Pass Filters		315	CMOS and NMOS Logic Gates		356
To Build Any Active High-Pass Filters  315	The CMOS Inverter			356





Types of TTL Available			358	Finger Touch Circuits			402
	.   Regular TTL			359		.   Single Channel		402
	.   Low-Power TTL		359		.   10-Channel Unit		402
	.   High-Power TTL		360	Pulse Converter Musical Unit		403
	.   Schottky TTL		360	An Electronic Organ			405
	.   Low-Power Schottky TTL	360	Special Effects				405
	.   TTl to TTL			361	Working Principle of the Organ		406
TTL Output Stages			362	PWM Circuit				407
The Totem-Pole Stage			362	Circuit Description			410
Three-State Output			363	Speaker Output				412
Comparison of Logic Families		364	External Interface			413
Bistable Multivibrator Circuits		365	Power Supply				413
Bistable Multivibrator (Flip-Flop)	366	Keyboard				414
RS Flip-Flop				366	Construction				415
T Flip-Flop				367	Front Panel				417
JK Flip-Flop				368	Keyboard Debouncer			418
Monostable Multivibrator (One-Shot)	371	Electronic Music			419
Astable Multivibrator (Clock)		373	Keyboard Storage			419
Schmitt Trigger				375	An Example - Electronic Music		419
Shift Registers				377	The Pseudo-Random Sequencer		423
Counters				379	Longer Sequences			425
Divide-By-N Counter			380	A Music Composer			427
Decoders				382	Electronic Music Synthesizer		429
Memories				384	A TTL Project				431
Memory Types				385	Timber and Envelope Generator For
ROMs					386	Electronic Music			431
PROM, EPROM, E2PROM, PAL			___________________________________________
PLA, and PLL				387		     MODULE FIFTEEN
VLSI Systems				391	             HYBRID CIRCUITS                 
Microprocessors & Microcomputers	391
Microcomputers				393	Wave Shaping and Data Conversion
Single-Chip Microcomputer		394	Systems					433
Application				395	Square-Wave and Trangle-Wave
____________________________________________	Generators				433
	   MODULE FOURTEEN			Trangle-Wave Generator			434
          CONQUERING DIGITAL               	Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)	435
						VCO Applications			439
Simple Sawtooth Generator		397	555-Timer IC				441
Lab Note				397	555 As A Monostable Multivibrator	444
Variable Duty-Cycle Oscillator		398	Timer 555 As A Schmitt Trigger	445
	.   ... Using IC LM 741		399	The Astable Multivibrator Using 555	447
	.   ... Using Schmitt Trigger	400	Duty Cycle				448
Square-Wave Generator Using a 			Duty Cycle Adjustment			450
Single LS TTL IC			401	Dual Timer IC 556			451




	
Wave Generator				451		.   ... Ground-Ended Electronic
Finger-Touch Using IC 555		454		Variable Potentiometer		491
Data Conversion and Acquisition			Touch Controlled Amplifier		493
Systems					455	IC 555 As An Analog Switch For 
An Analog-Switch			455	Positive Signals			495
Two-Quadrant Multiplier			458	Musical Melody Synthesizer		495
Sample-and-Hold Systems			460	Memory Controlled Sequencer		496
Analog Multiplexer & Demultiplexer	462	Musical Frequency Generator		497
Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converters	463	Circuit					498
Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converters	465	Construction				500
The Counting A/D Converter		465	Checking Up and Testing Procedure	502
Successive-Approximation A/D			Programming The Synthesizer		503
Converter				468	76477 Complex Sound Generator		505
The Parallel-Comparator (Flash) A/D		Working					506
Converter				468	Construction				506
Dual-Slope or Ratiometric Converter	469	Machine Gun Sound Simulator		508
Digital Sample-and-Hold			470	Other 76477 Circuit Ideas		511
Switched-Capacitor Filters		471	UM-IC Sound Generators			512
Resistance Simulation			472		.   12-Tune Musical Door-Bell	512
Integrators				473		.   Testing Procedure		514
Analog Multiplier			474		.   Gun Sound Effect Generator	514
Active Peak Detector			476	Touch Control Musical Bell		516
____________________________________________	Circuit Description			517
	    MODULE SIXTEEN				.   SET SWITCH			517
      CONQUERING HYBRID CIRCUITS       			.   DISPLAY			518
							.   INTERFACE LOGIC		519
Five Siren Projects Using IC 555	479		.   MELODY GENERATOR		521
	.   Factory Siren		479		.   ALARM			521
	.   Police Siren 		479		.   Power Supply		522
	.   Ambulance Siren		480		.   Construction		524
	.   Beeping Siren		481		.   Testing and Checking	525
	.   Multipurpose Tone and Sound		Envelope Follower For Guitar and
	    Synthesizer Operating 		Organs					527	
	    Principle			481	The Circuit				528
Morse Coding Switch			482	Filter					530
Man Machine Sound Generator		484	Construction				532
Professional Metronome			484	___________________________________________
Electronically Variable Time Constant :		            MODULE SEVENTEEN
A Music Attack-Decay Generator		486	             DIGITAL AUDIO                  
Light Operated Toy Organ		487
8-Octave Electronic Organ		488	Digital Audio				533
Electronic Variable Resistor		489	Historical Background			533
	. ... Using 16 Channel Analog/		Analog-to-Digital Conversion		534
	    Multiplexer / Demultiplexer	491	System Overview				537






Low-Pass Antialiasing Filter		538	Basic Specifications			567
Sample-and-Hold				540	Sampling Frequency			567
Analog-to-Digital Converter		541	Quantization				567
	.   Coding Scheme overview for		Signal Format				568
	    High-Quality Digital Audio	542	Playing Time				568
	.   Dither			543	Disk Specifications			569
	.   Dynamic-Range 			Error Correction & Control Technique	569
	    Requirements		543	Necessity of Error Control		570
	.   Floating-Point Quantization		Basic Error Correction Code		571
	    Schemes			544	Cross-Interleave Reed-Solomon
	.   Other Quantization Schemes	545	Code (CIRC)				572
Digital-to-Analog Conversion		545		.   Input Stage			572
Deglitching Sample-and-Hold		547		.   C2 Reed-Solomon Code	573
Anti-Image Low-Pass Filter		548		.   Cross Interleave		573
Oversampling Digital-to-Analog				.   C1 Reed-Solomon Code	573
Conversion Systems			548		.   Output Stage		573
Problems in Evaluating High Quality			.   Performance of CIRC	574
Digital Audio Systems			550	Modulation Method			577
Professional Application of Digital		Basic Requirements for a Modulation
Audio Technology			551	Method					577
All-Digital Audio Studio		552		.   Correct Readout of High-
Signal-Processing Requirements		553		    Density Recording		577
Developments in Digital Audio 				.   Clock Content		577
Studios					554		.   Low-Frequency Components	578
Editing					557		.   Error Propagation		578
Processing Circuits & Components	557	EFM					580
Equipment Evolution			557	Frame Format				580	  
Analog-to-Digital Converter		558	Subcodes				580
Successive Approximation		558	Basic Concept				580
Integrating Conversion			559	Subcode Format				581
Flash Conversion			560	COMPACT-DISK PLAYER SYSTEM		584
Resolution and Accuracy			561	Optical Requirements			584
Digital-to-Analog Converter		562	Basic Optics for Readout		584
Digital-to-Analog Output Amplifier	563	Laser Diode (LD)			585
Sample and Hold Circuits		564	Lens					586
Delta Modulation 			565	Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)	587
Companded Predictive Delta 			Servo Method				590
Modulation				565	Servo Systems				590
Linear Prediction			566	Focus Servo System			590
DIGITAL DISK RECORDING AND				.   Astigmatic Method		591
REPRODUCTION				567		.   Actuator			591
Compact-Disk (CD)			567	Redial-Tracing Servo Requirements	591
Digital Format				567		.   Twin-Spot Method		592





	.   Push-Pull Method		592	3-Resistor-Stage Conventional Values 	617
	.   Radial Direction Actuator	594	Decoding Latch Circuits			619
Spindle Servo				594	Filtering Unit				620
	.   Pull-In Stage		594	Polyphonic Strategy			621
	.   Lock Stage			595	Tone Selection				621
COMPACT-DISK PLAYER			595	Construction Notes			622
Functional Components			595	___________________________________________
High-Frequency Signal Processing	595		    MODULE NINETEEN
Digital Signal Processing		596	      MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEMS
Analog Signal Processing		597
Application of Compact-Disk System	598	Microprocessors				623
Read-Only Memory (ROM)			598	Microprocessor Systems			624
Video Disk With Digital Sound		560	EPROM					628
CONFIGURING AND MANUFACTURING			Basic Microprocessor Concepts		630
PROCESS OF COMPACT DISKS		602	A Comparison Between Several
Disk Specifications and Pit Geometry	602	Commercial Microprocessors		631
Cross Section of the Compact Disk	603	Internal Registers			632
Pit Profile and Signal Characteristics	604		.   Temporal Registers		633
	.   Pit Depth			604		.   Data Pointer		633
	.   Pit Width			605	Arithmetics and Logic Unit		634
	.   Pit Length			605	Stack					635
	.   Pit Edges			606	8080 and 8085 Microprocessors		635
Premastering and Mastering Process	607	The 8085 Microprocessor			636
Editing the Master Tape			607	The 8085 Microprocessor and CPU 
Mastering-Process Flow Sequence		607	Group					639
Preparation of Glass Master		607	Data Transfer, Logic Operation, and
Laser Recording				608	Branching				639
Stamper Production			610	Instruction Sets			640
Replication Process			610	Data Transfers To and From I/O 
Replication-Process Flow Sequence	610	Devices					641
Molding Method				611	Logic Operations			642
	.   Injection Molding		611	Flowcharting				643
	.   Compression Molding		611	Branch Instruction			644
	.   PhotoPolymerization Method	611	Software Delays				645
Coating					612	Program Assembly and Simulation		647
___________________________________________	Programming Languages			647
	   MODULE EIGHTEEN			Software Developments			648
    FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN			.   Design			648
							.   Coding			648
4-Octave 16-Tone-Bank Organ		613		.   Translation			648
Oscillators Unit			613		.   Testing			648
The Experimental Values of the				.   Debugging			649
48-Resistors				615	Assembly Source Programs		650


 


		
	.   The Label Field		650	Hardware Organization			675
	.   The Operation Code Field	650	8279, 8279-5 Programmable
	.   The Comment Field		650	Keyboard/Display Interface		676
Assembler Directives - Pseudo 			8279 Basic Functional Description	677
Instructions				651	Introduction				677
Two-Pass Assemblers			653	Input Modes				677
Macros					653		.   Scanned Keybaod		677
The Stack and Subroutines		653		.   Scanned Sensor Matrix	678
Subroutines - Conditional Calls and			.   Strobed Input		678
Returns					654	Output Modes				678
Modular Program Structures		655	Hardware Description			679
	.   ROM (Read-Only-Memory)	656	Principles of Operation			681
	.   RWM (Read-Write-Memory)	656	I/O Control and Data Buffers		681
Analog Data Input and Output		657	Control and Timing Registers and 
Microprocessor To D/A Converter 		Timing Control				681
Interface				657	Scan Counter				682
Multichannel Data Acquisition 			Return Buffers and Keyboard 		682
Systems					660	Debounce and Control			682
Eight-Bit 80C31 Embedded Processor	663	FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status		683
Section I				663	Display Address Registers and 
MicroControllers			663	Display RAM				683
8051 Family Overview			663	Software Operation			683
Members of the Family			663	8279 Commands				683
80C51BH / 80C31BH / 87C51		664	Keyboard/Display Mode Set		683
Memory Organization in 8051 Family 		Program Clock				684
Devices					665	Read FIFO/Sensor RAM			685
Program Memory				666	Display RAM				685
Data Memory				667	Write RAM				685
Chapter 2 - 8051 Family Architecture	671	Display Write Inhibit/Blanking		686
Introduction				672	Clear					686
Chapter 3				672	End Interrupt/Error Mode Set		687
Programmer's Guide			673	Status Word				688
Introduction				673	Data Read - Data Write			688
Memory Organization			673	Interface Consideration			688
Program Memory				673		.   Scanned Keyboard Mode
Chapter 4				674		    2-Key Lockout		688
Instruction Set				674		.   Scanned Keyboard Mode
Chapter 5				674		    N-Key Rollover		689
80C51 Family				674		.   Sensor Matrix Mode		689
___________________________________________		.   Data Format			690
	    MODULE TWENTY				.   Display			691
    FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN			.   Right Entry			691
  Hardware and Software Organization			.   Auto Increment	693
	
							


		.   8/16 Character		Program of Keyboard			723
		    Display Formats	695	Handling the 1st Sensor RAM Byte	723
		.   FIFO		695	Handling the 2nd Sensor RAM Byte	725
LCD Module PC4002 with Integrated		Handling the 3rd Sensor RAM Byte	727
LED Backlight				697	Handling the 4th Sensor RAM Byte	729
Register Select Signal			700	Handling the 5th Sensor RAM Byte	731
Contrast Adjustment Voltage		700	Handling the Last Sensor RAM Byte	733
LED Features				701	Enabling Further Reading Into The 
Keyboard				701	Sensor RAM				735
Minimum System				702	Data Transfer To The Main-Sound-
Software Partitions			706	Generator-Board				736
8279 Initialization			706	First Octave				740
Software Operation			706	Second Octave				740
Keyboard/Display Mode Set		706	Third Octave				745
Program Clock				706	Fourth Octave				749
Read FIFO/Sensor RAM			707	Character Transfer To LCD Via 8279	754
Write Display RAM			707	Substituting "RB0-RB5" with "RB6-RB11" 	754
Display Write Inhibit/Blanking		707	Reading Sensor RAM Bytes		754
Clear					708	The END					755
End Interrupt/Error Mode Set		708	___________________________________________
Software Organization			708	 	  MODULE TWENTY ONE
EQU					709	         HARMONIC MANIPULATORS           
Start					709
Interrupt 0 Routines			709	Harmonic Manipulator			757
Device Addressing Access		711	Fourier Series (Mathematical Rule)	757
Enabled-Addresses			711	Stage Explanation			758
Main-Board Oscillator-Latch 			Crystal-Harmonic-Analogous-
Addresses				712	Manipulator (Single Note)		759
System's Initializations			Digitally-Controlled Harmonic 
Handling Keyboard			714	Manipulator				764
Scanned Data				714	Logical Terminals			768
The Effect of Keyboard-Scanned Data		Software Routines			770
On The Main-Board 			717	The Complete Software			772
Transmitting Desired Data To The 		Main Program				773
LCD Display				717	Program of Keyboard			776
Extra Facilities			719	VCO Organ				790
The Whole Software			719	Note					793
Bit Addressable Segments		720	Software Hints				794
Main Program				720	Note					794
Initialization and Start Pattern of 		Frequency,  
the LCD					722	Analog Data,
Writing Command to the LCD Module	722	Corresponding Digital Data,
Power On LCD Meesages			722	Table					794





	 MODULE TWENTY TWO			Recording a Sound File			845
         DIGITAL PERCUSSION                	Effects Menu Commands			846
						Audio Recorder Contents			847
Percussion Systems			797	Introduction				847
Early Days Percussion Systems		797	Staring The Audio Recorder		848
Transversal Filters			798	Making a Recording			848
Transversal Filter Simulation System	800	Using Waveform Display			849
Logical Terminals			804	Changing Several Attributes		850
The Complete Software			805	Edit Menu				851
Main Program				806	Options Menu				852
Program of CCD Simulation		807	Effects Menu				852
END					809	The Audio Clip Library			853
Analog Transversal Filter		810	Introduction				853
Digital Music Recording & Playback	811	Starting The Audio Clip Library		854
Percussion Paging (Drum Machine)	813	Audio Rack Contents			854
Logical Terminals			816	The Command Center			855
Register Structure of the Software	817	Introduction				855
The Complete Software 			818	The Digital Audio Player		855
Main Program				819	System's Requirements			856
Keyboard Scanning Data Routine		825	Recording a File			856
Interrupt 0 Routine 			825	A Note About Recording			857
END					828	Digital Audio Player Menu Options	857
Percussion On PCs			830	The Compact Disk Player			858
Interfacing				832	The MIDI Player				858
RS-232-C  to TTL Converter		832	The MIDI Player Display			858
The Software				833	The Controls				859
Listing 21/1				834	The Mixer				860
Sending Musical Data Program		836	The Controls				861
A Convax Supporting Software		839	The Mixer				861
Convax (On Parallel Port) Software	840	The Mixer Window			862
___________________________________________	Contents for Media Player Help		862
	MODULE TWENTY THREE			Opening a File				863
          SOFTWARE MUSIC                	Playing a Media Device			863
						Specifying a Media Device		864
Software Musics				841	Changing The Scale			865
Microsoft Windows Audio Programs	841	File Menu Commands			865
Contents for Sound Recorder		841	Device Menu Commands			866
Adding Echo To The Sound		842	The Extended Recorder			867
Deleting a Part of a Sound File		842	Introduction				867
Inserting Another Sound File		843	Starting The Extended Recorder		867
Making a Sound Softer or Louder		843	The Internet				868
Mixing In Another Sound File		844	Using Windows NT in Connection To
Playing a Sound File 			844	The Internet				870





Live Music and Video Playback On 		Tips and Tricks				902
The Web					872	More On The MIDI Interface		903
Sound on the PC				875	Delux Music Construction Set		904
8253 Timer				875	Public Domain Music Programs		905
Ports and PC Sound			876	MED - The Music Editor			905
Demonstration Program			876	Other Programs				906
How They Work ?				877	Make Sounds				906
Note					878	CUCUG JukeBox Disks			907
Assembly Listing			878	CUCUG Sound Effect Disks		909
Directory of Windows Audio 			___________________________________________
Softwares				882		   MODULE TWENTY FIVE
___________________________________________	            HARDWARE MUSICS                 
	MODULE TWENTY FOUR
     MAKING MUSIC ON THE AMIGA      		Hardware Musics				911
						The Audio Hardware of the Amiga		911
Languages				889	Hardware and Audio.device 
AmigaBASIC				889	Programming				912
The SOUND Command			889	Hardware Extensions			913
	.   Frequency			889	MIDI Interface				913
	.   Duration			890	Sound Digitizer				916
	.   Volume			890	Sampling Routine for Digitizing		918
	.   Channel			890	Other MIDI Applications			920
The WAVE Command			890	MIDI Interface Options			921
Example Program				891	Saving Sounds				922
Pseudo-Classical Music			891	Sequences				922
IFF and SMUS Formats			893	MIDI & Delux Music Construction Set	923
IFF Standard				893	MIDI and Sonix				923
ISS 8SVX Format				893	Using MIDI Patch			924
IFF SMUS Format				893	Tips and Tricks for Sampling		925
Music Software				897	List of MIDI Codes			925
Sonix					897	Glossary Terms 				928
Tips and Tricks				898	MIDI PEDAL - Construction Project	931
Changing Instruments 			898	MASTER BITS				937
Echo					898	Sound Cards				937
Using IFF Instruments			898	WAVE REPORT - December 1994		938
Audio Master II				899	CD / CD-ROM  -  TOP-10			944
Special FX Menu				900	IMPORT-CDs / CD-ROMs			945
Tips and Tricks				900	WAVE REPORT - March 1994		951
Sampling with Audio Master II		900	PRODUCTION LINE 1996			971
Parallel Port				900	Computer Select Articles - Sept 1995	983 
Joystick Port				901	MIDI Masters				983
The Oscilloscope			901	Roland's RAP-10/ATB			985
Dynamic Drums				901	Orchid SoundWave 32			988





Roland's SCD-15 Sound Convax GS 			  MODULE TWENTY SEVEN
Reforms 16-Bit Sound Cards		995	        THE COMPARISON BETWEEN 
Roland SoundConvax DB GM		997	           COMMERCIAL ORGANS            
You Can Be A One-Man Band		998
___________________________________________	YAMAHA PSR 400-500 (PORTATONE)  	1032
	  MODULE TWENTY SIX			YAMAHA PSR-A3 (PORTATONE)	       	1034
           RESEARCH SYSTEMS                 	The Demonstration 		        1037
						Digital Effects			        1037
Advanced Systems Idea			999	About The PSR-A3 Stles	         	1037
Touch Response Circuit Idea		1000	Using Arabic Scales		        1038
Digitally-Controilled Graphic 			Iranian Musical Instrument and
Equalizer				1002	Systems			         	1038
Circuit Hints				1003	Song Recording		         	1040
Quantization				1005	The Multi Pads			        1040
Manual Quantization			1006	PSR 400-500 Owner's Guide	        1041
Complete Software			1006	YAMAHA PSR-A3 Owner's Manual    	1045
Main Program				1007	Roland E-86 - The Intelligent 
Program of Keyboard			1009	Synthesizer			        1081
END 					1014	E-86 MIDI Implementation	        1083
Simulation of Accompaniment		1015	E-86 Owner's Manual		        1111
Adding Fill in, Intro, and Ending	1016	E-86 MIDI Guidebook		        1131
Serial Transmission of Musical Data	1017	Other Sound Cards and
Serial Interface of 8031		1017	Sound Discussions		        1145
Serial Port Control Register		1018	Choosing Data Acquisition Boards
Baud Rates				1019	and Softwares			        1169
Generate Baud Rates Using Timer 1 	1020	____________________________________________
RESEARCH SYSTEMS			1022	
Musical Separating Expert System	1022		       Bibliography			         
System's Description			1023		          MY C.V                                                    
The Quality Betterment of a 			____________________________________________
Recorded Sound Media			1024	      THE END OF THE FIRST TWO BOOKS
	.   Spectral Attenuation	1026	
	.   Hi-Frequency Noise-Added	1026	____________________________________________
	.   Low-Frequency Noise-Added	1027	              THE APPENDICES                  
Noise Reduction Systems			1027
Synth-Percussion			1027	Musical and Vocal ICs			
A Special Remixing System On 			STK - Power Amplifier Hybrids	
Playback Systems			1028	BOSS SE-70  Algorithm Guide
Dynamic Head System			1029	BOSS SE-70 System's Implementations
Song's Commencement Indicator			80C51 Family User Guide
System					1029	Miscellaneous Appendices
____________________________________________	____________________________________________






BOSS SE-70 Super Effects Processor	267	Listing One, Two, and Three		298
Mono-Stereo Echo & Reverb System	267	Parts List				299
Delay Factors				267	Construction				300
Input Procedure				268	Testing					300
Delaying Stages				261-B	Different Connections			301
Clock Pulse Generator (CPG)		261-B	Allophones				301
Electronic Parts			262-B	Shop					303
Electronic Echo				264-B	Speech Therapy				307
Methods of Delaying			264-B	Auxiliary Circuits			309
About the Circuit			266-B	Voice Changer System			309
Supply					266-B		.   Preamplifier		309
Digital Reverberation System		269-B		.   Wave Forming		309
Quadruple Analog Switches				.   Oscillator (CPG)		310
(2X1 Make and 2X1 Break)		269	The Complete System			310
The Digital Reverb and Musical			Parts List				314
Digitaizing System			271	A Pseudo-Stereo Adaptateur		316
The System's Capabilities		271	Parts List				319
The System's Description		273	Mock Stereo				321
	.   (A) Echo System		273	Filter					321
	.   (B) Recording and Playback		Three Channel Mixing			323
	    of Musical Data		274	Parts List				324
The Process of Recording Musical 		Phasing Unit				326
Notes					275	Headphone Amplifier			329
Hardware Description			276	Parts List				330
	.   Microcontroller		276	Circuit Ideas				333
	.   Program Memory		276	Echo System (Stringless)		333
	.   Data Memory			276	Echo System (with String)		333
	.   Key-Pad			276	Mono-toStereo Converter			334
	.   Display			276	Vocal Vibrato System			334
	.   Input Stage			276	Three Guitar Phase Shifters		335
	.   Output Stage		277	Madonna Effect				336
	.   Key-Pad Circuit		277	___________________________________________
	.   Display Circuit		278
	.   Input Stage			279	    ADVANCED RESEARCH SYSTEM IDEAS
	.  Output Stage			279
Hints for the Software Organization	279	Advanced Research Systems		339
	.   (A)  Echo			279	Vocal Intelligent Processor		339
	.   (B)  Record and Edit	280	Spectral Comparison Technique		339
Routines For Echo, Recording and		Hardware Limitations			340
Playback				281	Principle of the Operation		341
Speaker Board				295	Musical Speech Processor 		342
How It Works				296	___________________________________________
The Circuit				297		THE END OF THE THIRD BOOK
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