MODULE ONE














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(Page 1) MODULE ONE PRINCIPLE OF MUSIC & SOUND . Fullness versus Thinness 22 Introduction 1 . Spaciousness 22 Complex Sounds (1) 1 . Nearness 22 Basic Properties of Simple Sounds 2 . Absence of Extraneous Complex Sounds (2) 3 Sounds 23 Phase 3 . Loudness 23 Spectrum 5 Hearing or Vision 23 Sound Species 6 Stereophonic Imaging 23 . Periodic 6 Nature of the Difference . Percussive 6 between Two Channels 26 . Synthesized 7 . Time Difference 26 Dimension of Sound 7 . Sound Effects 27 Sound Reflection and Absorption 8 . Two Independent Channel Interference 8 Usage 28 Diffraction 11 . Effect of Listener Position 28 Refraction 12 . Stereo Image Quality and Resonance 14 Spaciousness 28 Hearing 15 . Special Role of the . Anatomy of the Ear 15 Loudspeaker 28 Psycho-acoustics and the Dimension Sound in Rooms 29 of Hearing 17 . Precedence Effect and the . Loudness 17 Law of the First Wavefront 29 . Loudness as a Function of . Binaural Discrimination 29 Frequency and Amplitude 18 ____________________________________ . Loudness as a Function of Bandwidth 18 MODULE TWO . Loudness as a Function of ARCHITECTURAL Duration 18 ACOUSTIC . Measuring the Loudness of PRINCIPLES Complex Sounds 18 Masking 19 Sound Spectrum 31 . Simultaneous Masking 19 Propagation 32 . Temporal Masking 19 Directivity 32 Acoustic Reflex 20 Sound Buildup within A Space 32 Pitch 20 Sound Absorption 32 Timber, Sound Quality and Friction Absorption 33 Perceptual Dimension 21 Resonant Panels 33 . Clarity or Definition 21 Cavity Resonators 34 . Sharpness or Hardness Reverberation 34 versus Softness 22 Reverberation Time 35 . Brightness versus Darkness 22 Analog & Digital Sounds 36 (Page 2) Wave Shapes (Analog) 36 ____________________________________ ADSR 37 Effects 38 MODULE FOUR Digital Sounds 38 AUDIO SPECTRUM ____________________________________ AND MODULE THREE SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS MUSIC FUNDAMENTALS ____________________________________ Musical Scales 41 Introduction and Review 59 Musical Theory 43 The Production and Mixing of Scales 43 Electrical Oscillations 59 Intervals 44 The Nature of Oscillations 60 . Whole Step 44 Signals and Spectra 66 . Half Step 45 Signal Energy and Power 67 Music Composition 46 Sinusoid and Phasor Representation 67 Rhythm 46 Line Spectrum 69 Drum & Percussion Instrument Fourier-Series Analysis 70 Key Assignments (PSR-400/500) 47 Numerical Computation of Fourier Melody 48 Coefficients 75 Polyphony 48 Example 4-1 76 Voice/Polyphony List 49 Computer Programming 77 Harmony (Accompaniment) 49 Printout of the Program 79 Chord (Accord) 50 Discrete Fourier Series 79 Chord, Abbreviation, Normal Voicing 51 Spectral Density and Fourier Time 52 Transformation 80 Rests 53 Impulsive Signal 81 Ties 53 Compensation Networks 82 Tempo 54 Phase-Lead Network 82 . Allegro 54 Phase-Lag Network 83 . Moderato 54 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth 85 . Andante or Largo 54 Thermal Noise 86 Binary Meter 54 ____________________________________ Style Lists of 4/4, 2/2, 3/4 and 6/8 55 Ternary Meters 55 MODULE FIVE Other Meters 57 Resolution (Quantisation) 57 TRANSISTORS Musical Notation 58 (BJT AND FETS) ____________________________________ ____________________________________ (Page 3) Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 87 Feedback Amplifier 117 Modes of Transistor Operation 87 . Negative Feedback Amplifier 117 Large Signal Current Gains 88 . Positive Feedback Amplifier 117 More About Transistors 91 Properties of Feedback Amplifier A Complete Amplifier 92 Topologies 117 DC and AC Models 93 . The Shunt-Shunt Amplifier 118 The BJT Small-Signal Models 94 . The Series-Series Amplifier 118 The Low-Frequency Model 94 . The Shunt-Series Amplifier 119 Transistor Hybrid Equivalent Circuit 95 . The Series-Shunt Amplifier 119 . z-Parameters 95 Impedance in Feedback Amplifiers 121 . y-Parameters 95 . Input Resistance 121 . s-Parameters 96 . Output Resistance 121 More About h-Parameters 97 Important Characters of Feedback Graphical Determination of Amplifiers 122 h-Parameters 99 . Insensitivity 122 The BJT as a Switch 105 . Nonlinear Distortion 122 The Emitter-Coupled Pair 106 . Noise Reduction 122 . Differential Mode 106 . Stability 122 . Common Mode 106 Power Amplifiers 123 . CMRR 106 . Power Output 123 Single Stage Configuration 107 . Harmonic Distortion 123 . The CE Configuration 107 Amplifier Classifications 124 . The CC Configuration 108 . Class A 124 . The CB Configuration 108 . Class B 124 Waveform for a Sinusoidal Input 109 . Class AB 124 Current Mirrors 111 . Class C 124 Voltage Control Amplifier 112 Class B (Push-Pull) Amplifier 125 Important Transistor Circuit Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) 126 Parameters 114 JFET Operation 127 . Input Resistance 114 The JFET Transistor Characteristics 128 . Output Resistance 114 MOSFET Circuit Symbols 129 . Gain 114 Small-Signal FET Models 130 . Maximum Power Dissipation 114 The MOSFET as a Resistance 130 . Maximum Collector Current 114 The FET as a Switch 131 . Maximum Output Voltage The FET as an Amplifier 132 Rating 114 FET Circuit as a Current Source 133 . Avalanche Breakdown 114 FET Amplifier Stages 133 . Punch - Through 115 Small - Signal Equivalent Circuit 134 . The Operation Point 115 FET Differential Amplifier 134 . Temperature Stability 115 Semiconductor Manufacturers 136 . Rise Time 115 and . Fall Time 116 Device Specifications 137 . The Parameter fT 116 ____________________________________ (Page 4) _____________________________________ MODULE SIX Hartley Oscillator 180 FILTERS ( PASSIVE ) Crystal Oscillator 181 _____________________________________ Series-Resonant Circuit 183 Parallel-Resonant Circuit 184 Passive Filters 147 Circuit Ideas 185 Ideal Frequency-Selective Unijunction Oscillator (UJT) 186 Low-Pass Filter 149 Unijunction Transistor List (UJTs) 190 The Universal Class of Higher Circuit Ideas 190 Degrees 151 Electronic Sirens 193 Butterworth (Maximally Flat) Electronic Congo 194 Approximation 151 Passive Noise Reduction 194 Chebychev (Equiripple) . Mains Hum Filter for Audio Approximation 155 . Circuits 194 Reversed Chebychev Approximation 159 A Simple AF Filter 195 Elliptic Approximation 160 Hum Reduction Circuits 196 Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic High-Quality Noise Filter 197 Approximation 162 ____________________________________ Relation between Magnitude, Phase/ MODULE EIGHT Delay with Zeros and Poles 162 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP- AMPs) . Application 162 Minimum Phase Filter and Op-Amps 199 Relationship between Magnitude The Ideal Op-Amp 200 Characteristic, Phase/Delay 162 The Two-Stage Architecture 201 Monotonic Delay Characteristic Different Kinds of Op-Amp Usage Approximation 163 in Filters 202 All-Pass Delay Filter (Delay Line) 164 Other Important Op-Amp Internal Example 6-1 165 Stages 203 Example 6-2 166 . The Gain Stage With Active Arbitrary Delay Characteristic Load 203 Approximation 167 . The Differential Stage 204 Subtractive Tone Forming 168 . DC Level Shifting 205 _____________________________________ . The VBE Multiplier 205 MODULE SEVEN . Output Stage 205 INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE CIRCUITS A Closer Look 207 Some Important Op-Amp Rules 208 Active Filters 173 Frequency Response and Transistor Circuits 173 Compensation 209 Transistor Oscillators 174 . Internal Compensation 210-A Transistor Phase-Shift Oscillator 175 . Miller-Effect Compensation 210-B FET Phase-Shift Oscillator 177 Slew Rate 211-A The LC Tuned Oscillator Circuit 178 Effect of Slew Rate on an Input Transistor Collpitts Oscillator 179 Signal 211-B (Page 5) Offset Voltage and Currents 212-A General Description 238 Typical Performance of Selected Power Supply 241 Op-Amp Types 213-A Portable Stereo Cassette Tape Practical Op-Amp Circuits 213-B Amplifier 242 Other Types of Op-Amps 215 ____________________________________ . Single-Stage Architecture 215 MODULE NINE . Instrumentation Amplifier 215 IC POWER SUPPLY The Operational Transconductance Amplifier 216-A A Complete Power Supply MOS Operational Amplifier 216-B Performance 245 NMOS Circuits 216-B Circuit 246 CMOS Op-Amps 216-B Assembly 248 Some Op-Amp Limitations 217-A IC Voltage Regulators 250 Some Guidelines for Operational Three-Terminal Voltage Regulators 250 Amplifier Circuits 218-A Example 1 253 Op-Amps in Application 219-A Practical Power Supplies 254 Voltage and Current-Summing ____________________________________ Amplifiers 219-B MODULE TEN Summing Block 219-B WHY USE ACTIVE FILTERS ? The Integrator 220-B Op-Amp Oscillator Circuits 221 Why Use Active Filters 257 Colpitts Oscillator 222 Types of Active-Filter Circuits 258 Crystal Oscillator 223 Some Terms & Concepts 261 Wien-Bridge Oscillator 223 . Cutoff Frequency 261 Sine-Wave Oscillator Pendulum 225 . Damping 261 Commercially Available Op-Amps 227 . Normalization 261 Introduction To : Two Versatile . Order 261 Op-Amps 227 . Q 261 LM381 - Low Noise Preamplifier 227 . Scaling 261 Introduction 227 . Sensitivity 262 Circuit Description 229 . Shape Option 262 The LM3900 - A New Current- . Transfer Function 262 Differencing Op-Amp 231 Which Op-Amp ? 262 Preface 231 Circuit Description 272 An Introduction To The Norton Compensation Consideration 272 Amplifier 231 Preamplifier Circuits 274 Introduction To The Application . Signal Amplification 275 Of The LM3900 233 . Impedance Matching 275 IC TBA 810 234 . Equalization 275 Multiple Amplifier System 236 . Additional Facilities 275 Single-IC Stereo Amplifier Using . Dolby NR 275 LM 379 237 . Loudness 275 (Page 6) . Surround 275 Designing Active High-Pass Filters 316 . Cro2-Metal / Normal 276 Electronic Music 321 . X-Bass / Mega-Bass 276 Modifiers 321 . Mono / Stereo 276 Simple Wah-Wah Unit 321 Circuits Using Transistors 277 Formant Filtering 323 Mixers 279 Voltage-Controlled Filters (VCF) 323 Filters 279 ____________________________________ Suitability of ICs 280 MODULE TWELVE ICs For Preamps 280 AUDIO EQUALIZERS LM348, 349, 381, 382 281 Electronic Gong 283 Audio Equalizers 325 A Simple Op-Amp Examiner 283 Super Simple Graphic Equalizer 326 _____________________________________ 6-Band Graphic Equalizer 328 MODULE ELEVEN 10-Band Graphic Equalizer 330 OREDERED FILTERS The Circuit 333 Construction 333 Ordered Filters 285 Checking and Fault Finding 335 First- and Second-Order Networks 285 ____________________________________ Normalization and Scaling 285 MODULE THIRTEEN First-Order Low- and High-Pass INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS Section 287 Second-Order Low-Pass Section 292 Digital Circuits 339 Second-Order Bandpass Section 295 The Binary System 339 Second-Order High-Pass Section 298 Switching Circuits & Binary Signals 339 Other Second-Order Responses 300 Two-Input Circuits, ICs 340 Reactance Variable Inversions 301 IC Digital Logic Families 343 . The Conversion of S = s/b 302 Positive and Negative Logics 345 . Example 10-1 302 Special Characteristics 346 . The Conversion of S = B/s 302 Example 12-1 347 . The Conversion of Fan-In 347 S = (s2+w02) / Bs 303 Power Dissipation 348 . The Conversion of Speed of Operation 348 S = Bs / (s2+w02) 304 Noise Margin 349 CG-GC Transformation 305 Input and Output Limits 349 RLC-CRD Transformation 306 Transistor Inverter 350 Higher Order Low-Pass Filters 307 IC Logic Devices 350 Higher Order Bandpass Filters 311 Transistor-Transistor-Logic (TTL) 351 Ringing Electronic Bells 312 CMOS Logic Circuits 353 Percussion Generators 313 Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) 354 Examples 314 Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL) 355 Higher Order High-Pass Filters 315 CMOS and NMOS Logic Gates 356 To Build any Active High-Pass Filters 315 The CMOS Inverter 356 (Page 7) Types of TTL Available 358 Finger Touch Circuits 402 . Regular TTL 359 . Single Channel 402 . Low-Power TTL 359 . 10-Channel Unit 402 . High-Power TTL 360 Pulse Converter Musical Unit 403 . Schottky TTL 360 An Electronic Organ 405 . Low-Power Schottky TTL 360 Special Effects 405 . TTL to TTL 361 Working Principle of the Organ 406 TTL Output Stages 362 PWM Circuit 407 The Totem-Pole Stage 362 Circuit Description 410 Three-State Output 363 Speaker Output 412 Comparison of Logic Families 364 External Interface 413 Bistable Multivibrator Circuits 365 Power Supply 413 Bistable Multivibrator (Flip-Flop) 366 Keyboard 414 RS Flip-Flop 366 Construction 415 T Flip-Flop 367 Front Panel 417 JK Flip-Flop 368 Keyboard Debouncer 418 Monostable Multivibrator (One-Shot) 371 Electronic Music 419 Astable Multivibrator (Clock) 373 Keyboard Storage 419 Schmitt Trigger 375 An Example - Electronic Music 419 Shift Registers 377 The Pseudo-Random Sequencer 423 Counters 379 Longer Sequences 425 Divide-By-N Counter 380 A Music Composer 427 Decoders 382 Electronic Music Synthesizer 429 Memories 384 A TTL Project 431 Memory Types 385 Timber and Envelope Generator For ROMs 386 Electronic Music 431 PROM, EPROM, E2PROM, PAL ____________________________________ PLA, and PLL 387 MODULE FIFTEEN VLSI Systems 391 HYBRID CIRCUITS Microprocessors & Microcomputers 391 Microcomputers 393 Wave Shaping and Data Conversion Single-Chip Microcomputer 394 Systems 433 Application 395 Square-Wave and Triangle-Wave _____________________________________ Generators 433 MODULE FOURTEEN Triangle-Wave Generator 434 CONQUERING DIGITAL Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 435 VCO Applications 439 Simple Sawtooth Generator 397 555-Timer IC 441 Lab Note 397 555 as a Monostable Multivibrator 444 Variable Duty-Cycle Oscillator 398 Timer 555 as a Schmitt Trigger 445 . ... Using IC LM 741 399 The Astable Multivibrator using 555 447 . ... Using Schmitt Trigger 400 Duty Cycle 448 Square-Wave Generator Using a Duty Cycle Adjustment 450 Single LS TTL IC 401 Dual Timer IC 556 451 (Page 8) Wave Generator 451 . ... Ground-Ended Electronic Finger-Touch Using IC 555 454 Variable Potentiometer 491 Data Conversion and Acquisition Touch Controlled Amplifier 493 Systems 455 IC 555 as an Analog Switch for An Analog-Switch 455 Positive Signals 495 Two-Quadrant Multiplier 458 Musical Melody Synthesizer 495 Sample-and-Hold Systems 460 Memory Controlled Sequencer 496 Analog Multiplexer & Demultiplexer 462 Musical Frequency Generator 497 Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converters 463 Circuit 498 Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converters 465 Construction 500 The Counting A/D Converter 465 Checking Up and Testing Procedure 502 Successive-Approximation A/D Programming The Synthesizer 503 Converter 468 76477 Complex Sound Generator 505 The Parallel-Comparator (Flash) A/D Working 506 Converter 468 Construction 506 Dual-Slope or Ratiometric Converter 469 Machine Gun Sound Simulator 508 Digital Sample-and-Hold 470 Other 76477 Circuit Ideas 511 Switched-Capacitor Filters 471 UM-IC Sound Generators 512 Resistance Simulation 472 . 12-Tune Musical Door-Bell 512 Integrators 473 . Testing Procedure 514 Analog Multiplier 474 . Gun Sound Effect Generator 514 Active Peak Detector 476 Touch Control Musical Bell 516 _____________________________________ Circuit Description 517 MODULE SIXTEEN . SET SWITCH 517 CONQUERING HYBRID CIRCUITS . DISPLAY 518 . INTERFACE LOGIC 519 Five Siren Projects Using IC 555 479 . MELODY GENERATOR 521 . Factory Siren 479 . ALARM 521 . Police Siren 479 . Power Supply 522 . Ambulance Siren 480 . Construction 524 . Beeping Siren 481 . Testing and Checking 525 . Multipurpose Tone and Sound Envelope Follower For Guitar and Synthesizer Operating Organs 527 Principle 481 The Circuit 528 Morse Coding Switch 482 Filter 530 Man Machine Sound Generator 484 Construction 532 Professional Metronome 484 ____________________________________ Electronically Variable Time Constant : MODULE SEVENTEEN A Music Attack-Decay Generator 486 DIGITAL AUDIO Light Operated Toy Organ 487 8-Octave Electronic Organ 488 Digital Audio 533 Electronic Variable Resistor 489 Historical Background 533 . ... Using 16 Channel Analog/ Analog-to-Digital Conversion 534 Multiplexer/Demultiplexer 491 System Overview 537 (Page 9) Low-Pass Antialiasing Filter 538 Basic Specifications 567 Sample-and-Hold 540 Sampling Frequency 567 Analog-to-Digital Converter 541 Quantisation 567 . Overview of Coding Schemes Signal Format 568 . for High-Quality Digital Audio 542 Playing Time 568 . Dither 543 Disk Specifications 569 . Dynamic-Range Error Correction & Control Technique 569 Requirements 543 Necessity of Error Control 570 . Floating-Point Quantisation Basic Error Correction Code 571 Schemes 544 Cross-Interleave Reed-Solomon . Other Quantisation Schemes 545 Code (CIRC) 572 Digital-to-Analog Conversion 545 . Input Stage 572 Deglitching Sample-and-Hold 547 . C2 Reed-Solomon Code 573 Anti-Image Low-Pass Filter 548 . Cross Interleave 573 Oversampling Digital-to-Analog . C1 Reed-Solomon Code 573 Conversion Systems 548 . Output Stage 573 Problems in Evaluating High Quality . Performance of CIRC 574 Digital Audio Systems 550 Modulation Method 577 Professional Application of Digital Basic Requirements for a Modulation Audio Technology 551 Method 577 All-Digital Audio Studio 552 . Correct Readout of High- Signal-Processing Requirements 553 Density Recording 577 Developments in Digital Audio . Clock Content 577 Studios 554 . Low-Frequency Components 578 Editing 557 . Error Propagation 578 Processing Circuits & Components 557 EFM 580 Equipment Evolution 557 Frame Format 580 Analog-to-Digital Converter 558 Subcodes 580 Successive Approximation 558 Basic Concept 580 Integrating Conversion 559 Subcode Format 581 Flash Conversion 560 COMPACT-DISK PLAYER SYSTEM 584 Resolution and Accuracy 561 Optical Requirements 584 Digital-to-Analog Converter 562 Basic Optics for Readout 584 Digital-to-Analog Output Amplifier 563 Laser Diode (LD) 585 Sample and Hold Circuits 564 Lens 586 Delta Modulation 565 Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) 587 Companded Predictive Delta Servo Method 590 Modulation 565 Servo Systems 590 Linear Prediction 566 Focus Servo System 590 DIGITAL DISK RECORDING AND . Astigmatic Method 591 REPRODUCTION 567 . Actuator 591 Compact-Disk (CD) 567 Redial-Tracing Servo Requirements 591 Digital Format 567 . Twin-Spot Method 592 (Page 10) . Push-Pull Method 592 3-Resistor-Stage Conventional Values 617 . Actuator in Radial Direction 594 Decoding Latch Circuits 619 Spindle Servo 594 Filtering Unit 620 . Pull-In Stage 594 Polyphonic Strategy 621 . Lock Stage 595 Tone Selection 621 COMPACT-DISK PLAYER 595 Construction Notes 622 Functional Components 595 ____________________________________ High-Frequency Signal Processing 595 MODULE NINETEEN Digital Signal Processing 596 MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEMS Analog Signal Processing 597 Application of Compact-Disk System 598 Microprocessors 623 Read-Only Memory (ROM) 598 Microprocessor Systems 624 Video Disk with Digital Sound 560 EPROM 628 CONFIGURING AND MANUFACTURING Basic Microprocessor Concepts 630 PROCESS OF COMPACT DISKS 602 A Comparison between Several Disk Specifications and Pit Geometry 602 Commercial Microprocessors 631 Cross-Section of the Compact Disk 603 Internal Registers 632 Pit Profile and Signal Characteristics 604 . Temporal Registers 633 . Pit Depth 604 . Data Pointer 633 . Pit Width 605 Arithmetic and Logic Unit 634 . Pit Length 605 Stack 635 . Pit Edges 606 8080 and 8085 Microprocessors 635 Premastering and Mastering Process 607 The 8085 Microprocessor 636 Editing the Master Tape 607 The 8085 Microprocessor and CPU Mastering-Process Flow Sequence 607 Group 639 Preparation of Glass Master 607 Data Transfer, Logic Operation, and Laser Recording 608 Branching 639 Stamper Production 610 Instruction Sets 640 Replication Process 610 Data Transfers To and From I/O Replication-Process Flow Sequence 610 Devices 641 Molding Method 611 Logic Operations 642 . Injection Molding 611 Flowcharting 643 . Compression Molding 611 Branch Instruction 644 . Photo Polymerization Method 611 Software Delays 645 Coating 612 Program Assembly and Simulation 647 _____________________________________ Programming Languages 647 MODULE EIGHTEEN Software Developments 648 FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN . Design 648 . Coding 648 4-Octave 16-Tone-Bank Organ 613 . Translation 648 Oscillators Unit 613 . Testing 648 The Experimental Values of the . Debugging 649 48-Resistors 615 Assembly Source Programs 650 (Page 11) . The Label Field 650 Hardware Organization 675 . The Operation Code Field 650 8279, 8279-5 Programmable . The Comment Field 650 Keyboard/Display Interface 676 Assembler Directives - Pseudo 8279 Basic Functional Description 677 Instructions 651 Introduction 677 Two-Pass Assemblers 653 Input Modes 677 Macros 653 . Scanned Keyboard 677 The Stack and Subroutines 653 . Scanned Sensor Matrix 678 Subroutines - Conditional Calls and . Strobed Input 678 Returns 654 Output Modes 678 Modular Program Structures 655 Hardware Description 679 . ROM (Read-Only-Memory) 656 Principles of Operation 681 . RWM (Read-Write-Memory) 656 I/O Control and Data Buffers 681 Analog Data Input and Output 657 Control and Timing Registers and Microprocessor To D/A Converter Timing Control 681 Interface 657 Scan Counter 682 Multichannel Data Acquisition Return Buffers and Keyboard 682 Systems 660 Debounce and Control 682 Eight-Bit 80C31 Embedded Processor 663 FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status 683 Section I 663 Display Address Registers and Micro-Controllers 663 Display RAM 683 8051 Family Overview 663 Software Operation 683 Members of the Family 663 8279 Commands 683 80C51BH / 80C31BH / 87C51 664 Keyboard/Display Mode Set 683 Memory Organization in 8051 Family Program Clock 684 Devices 665 Read FIFO/Sensor RAM 685 Program Memory 666 Display RAM 685 Data Memory 667 Write RAM 685 Chapter 2 - 8051 Family Architecture 671 Display Write Inhibit/Blanking 686 Introduction 672 Clear 686 Chapter 3 672 End Interrupt/Error Mode Set 687 Programmer's Guide 673 Status Word 688 Introduction 673 Data Read - Data Write 688 Memory Organization 673 Interface Consideration 688 Program Memory 673 . Scanned Keyboard Mode Chapter 4 674 2-Key Lockout 688 Instruction Set 674 . Scanned Keyboard Mode Chapter 5 674 N-Key Rollover 689 80C51 Family 674 . Sensor Matrix Mode 689 _____________________________________ . Data Format 690 MODULE TWENTY . Display 691 FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN . Right Entry 691 Hardware and Software Organization . Auto Increment 693 (Page 12) . 8/16 Character Program of Keyboard 723 Display Formats 695 Handling the 1st Sensor RAM Byte 723 . FIFO 695 Handling the 2nd Sensor RAM Byte 725 LCD Module PC4002 with Integrated Handling the 3rd Sensor RAM Byte 727 LED Backlight 697 Handling the 4th Sensor RAM Byte 729 Register Select Signal 700 Handling the 5th Sensor RAM Byte 731 Contrast Adjustment Voltage 700 Handling the Last Sensor RAM Byte 733 LED Features 701 Enabling Further Reading into the Keyboard 701 Sensor RAM 735 Minimum System 702 Data Transfer to the Main-Sound- Software Partitions 706 Generator-Board 736 8279 Initialization 706 First Octave 740 Software Operation 706 Second Octave 740 Keyboard/Display Mode Set 706 Third Octave 745 Program Clock 706 Fourth Octave 749 Read FIFO/Sensor RAM 707 Character Transfer to LCD Via 8279 754 Write Display RAM 707 Substituting RB0..RB5 with RB6..RB11 754 Display Write Inhibit/Blanking 707 Reading Sensor RAM Bytes 754 Clear 708 The END 755 End Interrupt/Error Mode Set 708 ____________________________________ Software Organization 708 MODULE TWENTY ONE EQU 709 HARMONIC MANIPULATORS Start 709 Interrupt 0 Routines 709 Harmonic Manipulator 757 Device Addressing Access 711 Fourier Series (Mathematical Rules) 757 Enabled-Addresses 711 Stage Explanation 758 Main-Board Oscillator-Latch Crystal-Harmonic-Analogous- Addresses 712 Manipulator (Single Note) 759 System's Initializations Digitally-Controlled Harmonic Handling Keyboard 714 Manipulator 764 Scanned Data 714 Logical Terminals 768 The Effect of Keyboard-Scanned Data Software Routines 770 on the Main-Board 717 The Complete Software 772 Transmitting Desired Data to the Main Program 773 LCD Display 717 Program of Keyboard 776 Extra Facilities 719 VCO Organ 790 The Whole Software 719 Notes 793 Bit Addressable Segments 720 Software Hints 794 Main Program 720 Notes 794 Initialization and Start Pattern of the Frequency, LCD 722 Analog Data, Writing Command to the LCD Module 722 Corresponding Digital Data, Power on LCD Messages 722 Table 794 (Page 13) ___________________________________ MODULE TWENTY TWO Recording a Sound File 845 DIGITAL PERCUSSION Effects Menu Commands 846 Audio Recorder Contents 847 Percussion Systems 797 Introduction 847 Early Days Percussion Systems 797 Staring The Audio Recorder 848 Transversal Filters 798 Making a Recording 848 Transversal Filter Simulation System 800 Using Waveform Display 849 Logical Terminals 804 Changing Several Attributes 850 The Complete Software 805 Edit Menu 851 Main Program 806 Options Menu 852 Program of CCD Simulation 807 Effects Menu 852 END 809 The Audio Clip Library 853 Analog Transversal Filter 810 Introduction 853 Digital Music Recording & Playback 811 Starting The Audio Clip Library 854 Percussion Paging (Drum Machine) 813 Audio Rack Contents 854 Logical Terminals 816 The Command Center 855 Register Structure of the Software 817 Introduction 855 The Complete Software 818 The Digital Audio Player 855 Main Program 819 System's Requirements 856 Keyboard Scanning Data Routine 825 Recording a File 856 Interrupt 0 Routine 825 A Note about Recording 857 END 828 Digital Audio Player Menu Options 857 Percussion On PCs 830 The Compact Disk Player 858 Interfacing 832 The MIDI Player 858 RS-232-C to TTL Converter 832 The MIDI Player Display 858 The Software 833 The Controls 859 Listing 21/1 834 The Mixer 860 Sending Musical Data Program 836 The Controls 861 A Convax Supporting Software 839 The Mixer 861 Convax (On Parallel Port) Software 840 The Mixer Window 862 _____________________________________ Contents for Media Player Help 862 MODULE TWENTY THREE Opening a File 863 SOFTWARE MUSICS Playing a Media Device 863 Specifying a Media Device 864 Software Music 841 Changing the Scale 865 Microsoft Windows Audio Programs 841 File Menu Commands 865 Contents for Sound Recorder 841 Device Menu Commands 866 Adding Echo to The Sound 842 The Extended Recorder 867 Deleting a Part of a Sound File 842 Introduction 867 Inserting Another Sound File 843 Starting the Extended Recorder 867 Making a Sound Softer or Louder 843 The Internet 868 Mixing In Another Sound File 844 Using Windows NT in Connection To Playing a Sound File 844 The Internet 870 (Page 14) Live Music and Video Playback On Tips and Tricks 902 The Web 872 More on the MIDI Interface 903 Sound on the PC 875 Delux Music Construction Set 904 8253 Timer 875 Public Domain Music Programs 905 Ports and PC Sound 876 MED - The Music Editor 905 Demonstration Program 876 Other Programs 906 How They Work? 877 Make Sounds 906 Note 878 CUCUG JukeBox Disks 907 Assembly Listing 878 CUCUG Sound Effect Disks 909 Directory of Windows Audio ____________________________________ Software 882 MODULE TWENTY FIVE _____________________________________ HARDWARE MUSIC MODULE TWENTY FOUR MAKING MUSIC ON THE AMIGA Hardware Music 911 The Audio Hardware of the Amiga 911 Languages 889 Hardware and audio.device AmigaBASIC 889 Programming 912 The SOUND Command 889 Hardware Extensions 913 . Frequency 889 MIDI Interface 913 . Duration 890 Sound Digitizer 916 . Volume 890 Sampling Routine for Digitizing 918 . Channel 890 Other MIDI Applications 920 The WAVE Command 890 MIDI Interface Options 921 Example Program 891 Saving Sounds 922 Pseudo-Classical Music 891 Sequences 922 IFF and SMUS Formats 893 MIDI & Delux Music Construction Set 923 IFF Standard 893 MIDI and Sonix 923 ISS 8SVX Format 893 Using MIDI Patch 924 IFF SMUS Format 893 Tips and Tricks for Sampling 925 Music Software 897 List of MIDI Codes 925 Sonix 897 Glossary Terms 928 Tips and Tricks 898 MIDI PEDAL - Construction Project 931 Changing Instruments 898 MASTER BITS 937 Echo 898 Sound Cards 937 Using IFF Instruments 898 WAVE REPORT - December 1994 938 Audio Master II 899 CD/CD-ROM - TOP-10 944 Special FX Menu 900 IMPORT-CDs / CD-ROMs 945 Tips and Tricks 900 WAVE REPORT - March 1994 951 Sampling with Audio Master II 900 PRODUCTION LINE 1996 971 Parallel Port 900 Computer Select Articles - Sept 1995 983 Joystick Port 901 MIDI Masters 983 The Oscilloscope 901 Roland's RAP-10/ATB 985 Dynamic Drums 901 Orchid SoundWave 32 988 (Page 15) ___________________________________ Roland's SCD-15 Sound Convax GS MODULE TWENTY SEVEN Reforms 16-Bit Sound Cards 995 THE COMPARISON BETWEEN Roland SoundConvax DB GM 997 COMMERCIAL ORGANS You Can Be A One-Man Band! 998 _____________________________________ YAMAHA PSR 400-500 (PORTATONE) 1032 MODULE TWENTY SIX YAMAHA PSR-A3 (PORTATONE) 1034 RESEARCH SYSTEMS The Demonstration 1037 Digital Effects 1037 Advanced Systems Idea 999 About The PSR-A3 Styles 1037 Touch Response Circuit Idea 1000 Using Arabic Scales 1038 Digitally-Controlled Graphic Iranian Musical Instrument and Equalizer 1002 Systems 1038 Circuit Hints 1003 Song Recording 1040 Quantisation 1005 The Multi Pads 1040 Manual Quantisation 1006 PSR 400-500 Owner's Guide 1041 Complete Software 1006 YAMAHA PSR-A3 Owner's Manual 1045 Main Program 1007 Roland E-86 - The Intelligent Program of Keyboard 1009 Synthesizer 1081 END 1014 E-86 MIDI Implementation 1083 Simulation of Accompaniment 1015 E-86 Owner's Manual 1111 Adding Fill in, Intro, and Ending 1016 E-86 MIDI Guidebook 1131 Serial Transmission of Musical Data 1017 Other Sound Cards and Serial Interface of 8031 1017 Sound Discussions 1145 Serial Port Control Register 1018 Choosing Data Acquisition Boards Baud Rates 1019 and Softwares 1169 Generate Baud Rates Using Timer 1 1020 ____________________________________ RESEARCH SYSTEMS 1022 Musical Separating Expert System 1022 Bibliography System's Description 1023 MY C.V The Quality Betterment of a ____________________________________ Recorded Sound Media 1024 THE END OF THE FIRST TWO BOOKS . Spectral Attenuation 1026 . Hi-Frequency Noise-Added 1026 ____________________________________ . Low-Frequency Noise-Added 1027 THE APPENDICES Noise Reduction Systems 1027 Synth-Percussion 1027 Musical and Vocal ICs A Special Remixing System On STK - Power Amplifier Hybrids Playback Systems 1028 BOSS SE-70 Algorithm Guide Dynamic Head System 1029 BOSS SE-70 System's Implementations Song's Commencement Indicator 80C51 Family User Guide System 1029 Miscellaneous Appendices (THE END OF THE FOURTH BOOK) ____________________________________ ____________________________________ (Page 16) A Complete review on the Sound Behaviors and Systems 1-266 BOSS SE-70 Super Effects Processor 267 Listing One, Two, and Three 298 Mono-Stereo Echo & Reverb System 267 Parts List 299 Delay Factors 267 Construction 300 Input Procedure 268 Testing 300 Delaying Stages 261-B Different Connections 301 Clock Pulse Generator (CPG) 261-B Allophones 301 Electronic Parts 262-B Shop 303 Electronic Echo 264-B Speech Therapy 307 Methods of Delaying 264-B Auxiliary Circuits 309 About the Circuit 266-B Voice Changer System 309 Supply 266-B . Preamplifier 309 Digital Reverberation System 269-B . Wave Forming 309 Quadruple Analog Switches . Oscillator (CPG) 310 (2X1 Make and 2X1 Break) 269 The Complete System 310 The Digital Reverb and Musical Parts List 314 Digitizing System 271 A Pseudo-Stereo Adaptateur 316 The System's Capabilities 271 Parts List 319 The System's Description 273 Mock Stereo 321 . (A) Echo System 273 Filter 321 . (B) Recording and Playback Three Channel Mixing 323 of Musical Data 274 Parts List 324 The Process of Recording Musical Phasing Unit 326 Notes 275 Headphone Amplifier 329 Hardware Description 276 Parts List 330 . Micro-controller 276 Circuit Ideas 333 . Program Memory 276 Echo System (Stringless) 333 . Data Memory 276 Echo System (with String) 333 . Key-Pad 276 Mono-to Stereo Converter 334 . Display 276 Vocal Vibrato System 334 . Input Stage 276 Three Guitar Phase Shifters 335 . Output Stage 277 Madonna Effect 336 . Key-Pad Circuit 277 ____________________________________ . Display Circuit 278 . Input Stage 279 ADVANCED RESEARCH SYSTEM IDEAS . Output Stage 279 Hints for the Software Organization 279 Advanced Research Systems 339 . (A) Echo 279 Vocal Intelligent Processor 339 . (B) Record and Edit 280 Spectral Comparison Technique 339 Routines For Echo, Recording and Hardware Limitations 340 Playback 281 Principle of the Operation 341 Speaker Board 295 Musical Speech Processor 342 How it Works 296 ____________________________________ The Circuit 297 THE END OF THE THIRD BOOK