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MODULE ONE

PRINCIPLE OF MUSIC & SOUND . Fullness versus Thinness 22

Introduction 1 . Spaciousness 22

Complex Sounds (1) 1 . Nearness 22

Basic Properties of Simple Sounds 2 . Absence of Extraneous

Complex Sounds (2) 3 Sounds 23

Phase 3 . Loudness 23

Spectrum 5 Hearing or Vision 23

Sound Species 6 Stereophonic Imaging 23

. Periodic 6 Nature of the Difference

. Percussive 6 between Two Channels 26

. Synthesized 7 . Time Difference 26

Dimension of Sound 7 . Sound Effects 27

Sound Reflection and Absorption 8 . Two Independent Channel

Interference 8 Usage 28

Diffraction 11 . Effect of Listener Position 28

Refraction 12 . Stereo Image Quality and

Resonance 14 Spaciousness 28

Hearing 15 . Special Role of the

. Anatomy of the Ear 15 Loudspeaker 28

Psycho-acoustics and the Dimension Sound in Rooms 29

of Hearing 17 . Precedence Effect and the

. Loudness 17 Law of the First Wavefront 29

. Loudness as a Function of . Binaural Discrimination 29

Frequency and Amplitude 18 ____________________________________

. Loudness as a Function of

Bandwidth 18 MODULE TWO

. Loudness as a Function of ARCHITECTURAL

Duration 18 ACOUSTIC

. Measuring the Loudness of PRINCIPLES

Complex Sounds 18

Masking 19 Sound Spectrum 31

. Simultaneous Masking 19 Propagation 32

. Temporal Masking 19 Directivity 32

Acoustic Reflex 20 Sound Buildup within A Space 32

Pitch 20 Sound Absorption 32

Timber, Sound Quality and Friction Absorption 33

Perceptual Dimension 21 Resonant Panels 33

. Clarity or Definition 21 Cavity Resonators 34

. Sharpness or Hardness Reverberation 34

versus Softness 22 Reverberation Time 35

. Brightness versus Darkness 22 Analog & Digital Sounds 36

 

 

 

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Wave Shapes (Analog) 36 ____________________________________

ADSR 37

Effects 38 MODULE FOUR

Digital Sounds 38 AUDIO SPECTRUM

____________________________________ AND

MODULE THREE SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

MUSIC FUNDAMENTALS ____________________________________

Musical Scales 41 Introduction and Review 59

Musical Theory 43 The Production and Mixing of

Scales 43 Electrical Oscillations 59

Intervals 44 The Nature of Oscillations 60

. Whole Step 44 Signals and Spectra 66

. Half Step 45 Signal Energy and Power 67

Music Composition 46 Sinusoid and Phasor Representation 67

Rhythm 46 Line Spectrum 69

Drum & Percussion Instrument Fourier-Series Analysis 70

Key Assignments (PSR-400/500) 47 Numerical Computation of Fourier

Melody 48 Coefficients 75

Polyphony 48 Example 4-1 76

Voice/Polyphony List 49 Computer Programming 77

Harmony (Accompaniment) 49 Printout of the Program 79

Chord (Accord) 50 Discrete Fourier Series 79

Chord, Abbreviation, Normal Voicing 51 Spectral Density and Fourier

Time 52 Transformation 80

Rests 53 Impulsive Signal 81

Ties 53 Compensation Networks 82

Tempo 54 Phase-Lead Network 82

. Allegro 54 Phase-Lag Network 83

. Moderato 54 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth 85

. Andante or Largo 54 Thermal Noise 86

Binary Meter 54 ____________________________________

Style Lists of 4/4, 2/2, 3/4 and 6/8 55

Ternary Meters 55 MODULE FIVE

Other Meters 57

Resolution (Quantisation) 57 TRANSISTORS

Musical Notation 58 (BJT AND FETS)

____________________________________ ____________________________________

 

 

 

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Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 87 Feedback Amplifier 117

Modes of Transistor Operation 87 . Negative Feedback Amplifier 117

Large Signal Current Gains 88 . Positive Feedback Amplifier 117

More About Transistors 91 Properties of Feedback Amplifier

A Complete Amplifier 92 Topologies 117

DC and AC Models 93 . The Shunt-Shunt Amplifier 118

The BJT Small-Signal Models 94 . The Series-Series Amplifier 118

The Low-Frequency Model 94 . The Shunt-Series Amplifier 119

Transistor Hybrid Equivalent Circuit 95 . The Series-Shunt Amplifier 119

. z-Parameters 95 Impedance in Feedback Amplifiers 121

. y-Parameters 95 . Input Resistance 121

. s-Parameters 96 . Output Resistance 121

More About h-Parameters 97 Important Characters of Feedback

Graphical Determination of Amplifiers 122

h-Parameters 99 . Insensitivity 122

The BJT as a Switch 105 . Nonlinear Distortion 122

The Emitter-Coupled Pair 106 . Noise Reduction 122

. Differential Mode 106 . Stability 122

. Common Mode 106 Power Amplifiers 123

. CMRR 106 . Power Output 123

Single Stage Configuration 107 . Harmonic Distortion 123

. The CE Configuration 107 Amplifier Classifications 124

. The CC Configuration 108 . Class A 124

. The CB Configuration 108 . Class B 124

Waveform for a Sinusoidal Input 109 . Class AB 124

Current Mirrors 111 . Class C 124

Voltage Control Amplifier 112 Class B (Push-Pull) Amplifier 125

Important Transistor Circuit Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) 126

Parameters 114 JFET Operation 127

. Input Resistance 114 The JFET Transistor Characteristics 128

. Output Resistance 114 MOSFET Circuit Symbols 129

. Gain 114 Small-Signal FET Models 130

. Maximum Power Dissipation 114 The MOSFET as a Resistance 130

. Maximum Collector Current 114 The FET as a Switch 131

. Maximum Output Voltage The FET as an Amplifier 132

Rating 114 FET Circuit as a Current Source 133

. Avalanche Breakdown 114 FET Amplifier Stages 133

. Punch - Through 115 Small - Signal Equivalent Circuit 134

. The Operation Point 115 FET Differential Amplifier 134

. Temperature Stability 115 Semiconductor Manufacturers 136

. Rise Time 115 and

. Fall Time 116 Device Specifications 137

. The Parameter fT 116 ____________________________________

 

 

 

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_____________________________________

MODULE SIX Hartley Oscillator 180

FILTERS ( PASSIVE ) Crystal Oscillator 181

_____________________________________ Series-Resonant Circuit 183

Parallel-Resonant Circuit 184

Passive Filters 147 Circuit Ideas 185

Ideal Frequency-Selective Unijunction Oscillator (UJT) 186

Low-Pass Filter 149 Unijunction Transistor List (UJTs) 190

The Universal Class of Higher Circuit Ideas 190

Degrees 151 Electronic Sirens 193

Butterworth (Maximally Flat) Electronic Congo 194

Approximation 151 Passive Noise Reduction 194

Chebychev (Equiripple) . Mains Hum Filter for Audio

Approximation 155 . Circuits 194

Reversed Chebychev Approximation 159 A Simple AF Filter 195

Elliptic Approximation 160 Hum Reduction Circuits 196

Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic High-Quality Noise Filter 197

Approximation 162 ____________________________________

Relation between Magnitude, Phase/ MODULE EIGHT

Delay with Zeros and Poles 162 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP- AMPs)

. Application 162

Minimum Phase Filter and Op-Amps 199

Relationship between Magnitude The Ideal Op-Amp 200

Characteristic, Phase/Delay 162 The Two-Stage Architecture 201

Monotonic Delay Characteristic Different Kinds of Op-Amp Usage

Approximation 163 in Filters 202

All-Pass Delay Filter (Delay Line) 164 Other Important Op-Amp Internal

Example 6-1 165 Stages 203

Example 6-2 166 . The Gain Stage With Active

Arbitrary Delay Characteristic Load 203

Approximation 167 . The Differential Stage 204

Subtractive Tone Forming 168 . DC Level Shifting 205

_____________________________________ . The VBE Multiplier 205

MODULE SEVEN . Output Stage 205

INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE CIRCUITS A Closer Look 207

Some Important Op-Amp Rules 208

Active Filters 173 Frequency Response and

Transistor Circuits 173 Compensation 209

Transistor Oscillators 174 . Internal Compensation 210-A

Transistor Phase-Shift Oscillator 175 . Miller-Effect Compensation 210-B

FET Phase-Shift Oscillator 177 Slew Rate 211-A

The LC Tuned Oscillator Circuit 178 Effect of Slew Rate on an Input

Transistor Collpitts Oscillator 179 Signal 211-B

 

 

 

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Offset Voltage and Currents 212-A General Description 238

Typical Performance of Selected Power Supply 241

Op-Amp Types 213-A Portable Stereo Cassette Tape

Practical Op-Amp Circuits 213-B Amplifier 242

Other Types of Op-Amps 215 ____________________________________

. Single-Stage Architecture 215 MODULE NINE

. Instrumentation Amplifier 215 IC POWER SUPPLY

The Operational Transconductance

Amplifier 216-A A Complete Power Supply

MOS Operational Amplifier 216-B Performance 245

NMOS Circuits 216-B Circuit 246

CMOS Op-Amps 216-B Assembly 248

Some Op-Amp Limitations 217-A IC Voltage Regulators 250

Some Guidelines for Operational Three-Terminal Voltage Regulators 250

Amplifier Circuits 218-A Example 1 253

Op-Amps in Application 219-A Practical Power Supplies 254

Voltage and Current-Summing ____________________________________

Amplifiers 219-B MODULE TEN

Summing Block 219-B WHY USE ACTIVE FILTERS ?

The Integrator 220-B

Op-Amp Oscillator Circuits 221 Why Use Active Filters 257

Colpitts Oscillator 222 Types of Active-Filter Circuits 258

Crystal Oscillator 223 Some Terms & Concepts 261

Wien-Bridge Oscillator 223 . Cutoff Frequency 261

Sine-Wave Oscillator Pendulum 225 . Damping 261

Commercially Available Op-Amps 227 . Normalization 261

Introduction To : Two Versatile . Order 261

Op-Amps 227 . Q 261

LM381 - Low Noise Preamplifier 227 . Scaling 261

Introduction 227 . Sensitivity 262

Circuit Description 229 . Shape Option 262

The LM3900 - A New Current- . Transfer Function 262

Differencing Op-Amp 231 Which Op-Amp ? 262

Preface 231 Circuit Description 272

An Introduction To The Norton Compensation Consideration 272

Amplifier 231 Preamplifier Circuits 274

Introduction To The Application . Signal Amplification 275

Of The LM3900 233 . Impedance Matching 275

IC TBA 810 234 . Equalization 275

Multiple Amplifier System 236 . Additional Facilities 275

Single-IC Stereo Amplifier Using . Dolby NR 275

LM 379 237 . Loudness 275

 

 

 

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. Surround 275 Designing Active High-Pass Filters 316

. Cro2-Metal / Normal 276 Electronic Music 321

. X-Bass / Mega-Bass 276 Modifiers 321

. Mono / Stereo 276 Simple Wah-Wah Unit 321

Circuits Using Transistors 277 Formant Filtering 323

Mixers 279 Voltage-Controlled Filters (VCF) 323

Filters 279 ____________________________________

Suitability of ICs 280 MODULE TWELVE

ICs For Preamps 280 AUDIO EQUALIZERS

LM348, 349, 381, 382 281

Electronic Gong 283 Audio Equalizers 325

A Simple Op-Amp Examiner 283 Super Simple Graphic Equalizer 326

_____________________________________ 6-Band Graphic Equalizer 328

MODULE ELEVEN 10-Band Graphic Equalizer 330

OREDERED FILTERS The Circuit 333

Construction 333

Ordered Filters 285 Checking and Fault Finding 335

First- and Second-Order Networks 285 ____________________________________

Normalization and Scaling 285 MODULE THIRTEEN

First-Order Low- and High-Pass INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS

Section 287

Second-Order Low-Pass Section 292 Digital Circuits 339

Second-Order Bandpass Section 295 The Binary System 339

Second-Order High-Pass Section 298 Switching Circuits & Binary Signals 339

Other Second-Order Responses 300 Two-Input Circuits, ICs 340

Reactance Variable Inversions 301 IC Digital Logic Families 343

. The Conversion of S = s/b 302 Positive and Negative Logics 345

. Example 10-1 302 Special Characteristics 346

. The Conversion of S = B/s 302 Example 12-1 347

. The Conversion of Fan-In 347

S = (s2+w02) / Bs 303 Power Dissipation 348

. The Conversion of Speed of Operation 348

S = Bs / (s2+w02) 304 Noise Margin 349

CG-GC Transformation 305 Input and Output Limits 349

RLC-CRD Transformation 306 Transistor Inverter 350

Higher Order Low-Pass Filters 307 IC Logic Devices 350

Higher Order Bandpass Filters 311 Transistor-Transistor-Logic (TTL) 351

Ringing Electronic Bells 312 CMOS Logic Circuits 353

Percussion Generators 313 Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) 354

Examples 314 Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL) 355

Higher Order High-Pass Filters 315 CMOS and NMOS Logic Gates 356

To Build any Active High-Pass Filters 315 The CMOS Inverter 356

 

 

 

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Types of TTL Available 358 Finger Touch Circuits 402

. Regular TTL 359 . Single Channel 402

. Low-Power TTL 359 . 10-Channel Unit 402

. High-Power TTL 360 Pulse Converter Musical Unit 403

. Schottky TTL 360 An Electronic Organ 405

. Low-Power Schottky TTL 360 Special Effects 405

. TTL to TTL 361 Working Principle of the Organ 406

TTL Output Stages 362 PWM Circuit 407

The Totem-Pole Stage 362 Circuit Description 410

Three-State Output 363 Speaker Output 412

Comparison of Logic Families 364 External Interface 413

Bistable Multivibrator Circuits 365 Power Supply 413

Bistable Multivibrator (Flip-Flop) 366 Keyboard 414

RS Flip-Flop 366 Construction 415

T Flip-Flop 367 Front Panel 417

JK Flip-Flop 368 Keyboard Debouncer 418

Monostable Multivibrator (One-Shot) 371 Electronic Music 419

Astable Multivibrator (Clock) 373 Keyboard Storage 419

Schmitt Trigger 375 An Example - Electronic Music 419

Shift Registers 377 The Pseudo-Random Sequencer 423

Counters 379 Longer Sequences 425

Divide-By-N Counter 380 A Music Composer 427

Decoders 382 Electronic Music Synthesizer 429

Memories 384 A TTL Project 431

Memory Types 385 Timber and Envelope Generator For

ROMs 386 Electronic Music 431

PROM, EPROM, E2PROM, PAL ____________________________________

PLA, and PLL 387 MODULE FIFTEEN

VLSI Systems 391 HYBRID CIRCUITS

Microprocessors & Microcomputers 391

Microcomputers 393 Wave Shaping and Data Conversion

Single-Chip Microcomputer 394 Systems 433

Application 395 Square-Wave and Triangle-Wave

_____________________________________ Generators 433

MODULE FOURTEEN Triangle-Wave Generator 434

CONQUERING DIGITAL Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 435

VCO Applications 439

Simple Sawtooth Generator 397 555-Timer IC 441

Lab Note 397 555 as a Monostable Multivibrator 444

Variable Duty-Cycle Oscillator 398 Timer 555 as a Schmitt Trigger 445

. ... Using IC LM 741 399 The Astable Multivibrator using 555 447

. ... Using Schmitt Trigger 400 Duty Cycle 448

Square-Wave Generator Using a Duty Cycle Adjustment 450

Single LS TTL IC 401 Dual Timer IC 556 451

 

 

 

 

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Wave Generator 451 . ... Ground-Ended Electronic

Finger-Touch Using IC 555 454 Variable Potentiometer 491

Data Conversion and Acquisition Touch Controlled Amplifier 493

Systems 455 IC 555 as an Analog Switch for

An Analog-Switch 455 Positive Signals 495

Two-Quadrant Multiplier 458 Musical Melody Synthesizer 495

Sample-and-Hold Systems 460 Memory Controlled Sequencer 496

Analog Multiplexer & Demultiplexer 462 Musical Frequency Generator 497

Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converters 463 Circuit 498

Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converters 465 Construction 500

The Counting A/D Converter 465 Checking Up and Testing Procedure 502

Successive-Approximation A/D Programming The Synthesizer 503

Converter 468 76477 Complex Sound Generator 505

The Parallel-Comparator (Flash) A/D Working 506

Converter 468 Construction 506

Dual-Slope or Ratiometric Converter 469 Machine Gun Sound Simulator 508

Digital Sample-and-Hold 470 Other 76477 Circuit Ideas 511

Switched-Capacitor Filters 471 UM-IC Sound Generators 512

Resistance Simulation 472 . 12-Tune Musical Door-Bell 512

Integrators 473 . Testing Procedure 514

Analog Multiplier 474 . Gun Sound Effect Generator 514

Active Peak Detector 476 Touch Control Musical Bell 516

_____________________________________ Circuit Description 517

MODULE SIXTEEN . SET SWITCH 517

CONQUERING HYBRID CIRCUITS . DISPLAY 518

. INTERFACE LOGIC 519

Five Siren Projects Using IC 555 479 . MELODY GENERATOR 521

. Factory Siren 479 . ALARM 521

. Police Siren 479 . Power Supply 522

. Ambulance Siren 480 . Construction 524

. Beeping Siren 481 . Testing and Checking 525

. Multipurpose Tone and Sound Envelope Follower For Guitar and

Synthesizer Operating Organs 527

Principle 481 The Circuit 528

Morse Coding Switch 482 Filter 530

Man Machine Sound Generator 484 Construction 532

Professional Metronome 484 ____________________________________

Electronically Variable Time Constant : MODULE SEVENTEEN

A Music Attack-Decay Generator 486 DIGITAL AUDIO

Light Operated Toy Organ 487

8-Octave Electronic Organ 488 Digital Audio 533

Electronic Variable Resistor 489 Historical Background 533

. ... Using 16 Channel Analog/ Analog-to-Digital Conversion 534

Multiplexer/Demultiplexer 491 System Overview 537

 

 

 

 

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Low-Pass Antialiasing Filter 538 Basic Specifications 567

Sample-and-Hold 540 Sampling Frequency 567

Analog-to-Digital Converter 541 Quantisation 567

. Overview of Coding Schemes Signal Format 568

. for High-Quality Digital Audio 542 Playing Time 568

. Dither 543 Disk Specifications 569

. Dynamic-Range Error Correction & Control Technique 569

Requirements 543 Necessity of Error Control 570

. Floating-Point Quantisation Basic Error Correction Code 571

Schemes 544 Cross-Interleave Reed-Solomon

. Other Quantisation Schemes 545 Code (CIRC) 572

Digital-to-Analog Conversion 545 . Input Stage 572

Deglitching Sample-and-Hold 547 . C2 Reed-Solomon Code 573

Anti-Image Low-Pass Filter 548 . Cross Interleave 573

Oversampling Digital-to-Analog . C1 Reed-Solomon Code 573

Conversion Systems 548 . Output Stage 573

Problems in Evaluating High Quality . Performance of CIRC 574

Digital Audio Systems 550 Modulation Method 577

Professional Application of Digital Basic Requirements for a Modulation

Audio Technology 551 Method 577

All-Digital Audio Studio 552 . Correct Readout of High-

Signal-Processing Requirements 553 Density Recording 577

Developments in Digital Audio . Clock Content 577

Studios 554 . Low-Frequency Components 578

Editing 557 . Error Propagation 578

Processing Circuits & Components 557 EFM 580

Equipment Evolution 557 Frame Format 580

Analog-to-Digital Converter 558 Subcodes 580

Successive Approximation 558 Basic Concept 580

Integrating Conversion 559 Subcode Format 581

Flash Conversion 560 COMPACT-DISK PLAYER SYSTEM 584

Resolution and Accuracy 561 Optical Requirements 584

Digital-to-Analog Converter 562 Basic Optics for Readout 584

Digital-to-Analog Output Amplifier 563 Laser Diode (LD) 585

Sample and Hold Circuits 564 Lens 586

Delta Modulation 565 Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) 587

Companded Predictive Delta Servo Method 590

Modulation 565 Servo Systems 590

Linear Prediction 566 Focus Servo System 590

DIGITAL DISK RECORDING AND . Astigmatic Method 591

REPRODUCTION 567 . Actuator 591

Compact-Disk (CD) 567 Redial-Tracing Servo Requirements 591

Digital Format 567 . Twin-Spot Method 592

 

 

 

 

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. Push-Pull Method 592 3-Resistor-Stage Conventional Values 617

. Actuator in Radial Direction 594 Decoding Latch Circuits 619

Spindle Servo 594 Filtering Unit 620

. Pull-In Stage 594 Polyphonic Strategy 621

. Lock Stage 595 Tone Selection 621

COMPACT-DISK PLAYER 595 Construction Notes 622

Functional Components 595 ____________________________________

High-Frequency Signal Processing 595 MODULE NINETEEN

Digital Signal Processing 596 MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEMS

Analog Signal Processing 597

Application of Compact-Disk System 598 Microprocessors 623

Read-Only Memory (ROM) 598 Microprocessor Systems 624

Video Disk with Digital Sound 560 EPROM 628

CONFIGURING AND MANUFACTURING Basic Microprocessor Concepts 630

PROCESS OF COMPACT DISKS 602 A Comparison between Several

Disk Specifications and Pit Geometry 602 Commercial Microprocessors 631

Cross-Section of the Compact Disk 603 Internal Registers 632

Pit Profile and Signal Characteristics 604 . Temporal Registers 633

. Pit Depth 604 . Data Pointer 633

. Pit Width 605 Arithmetic and Logic Unit 634

. Pit Length 605 Stack 635

. Pit Edges 606 8080 and 8085 Microprocessors 635

Premastering and Mastering Process 607 The 8085 Microprocessor 636

Editing the Master Tape 607 The 8085 Microprocessor and CPU

Mastering-Process Flow Sequence 607 Group 639

Preparation of Glass Master 607 Data Transfer, Logic Operation, and

Laser Recording 608 Branching 639

Stamper Production 610 Instruction Sets 640

Replication Process 610 Data Transfers To and From I/O

Replication-Process Flow Sequence 610 Devices 641

Molding Method 611 Logic Operations 642

. Injection Molding 611 Flowcharting 643

. Compression Molding 611 Branch Instruction 644

. Photo Polymerization Method 611 Software Delays 645

Coating 612 Program Assembly and Simulation 647

_____________________________________ Programming Languages 647

MODULE EIGHTEEN Software Developments 648

FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN . Design 648

. Coding 648

4-Octave 16-Tone-Bank Organ 613 . Translation 648

Oscillators Unit 613 . Testing 648

The Experimental Values of the . Debugging 649

48-Resistors 615 Assembly Source Programs 650

 

 

 

 

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. The Label Field 650 Hardware Organization 675

. The Operation Code Field 650 8279, 8279-5 Programmable

. The Comment Field 650 Keyboard/Display Interface 676

Assembler Directives - Pseudo 8279 Basic Functional Description 677

Instructions 651 Introduction 677

Two-Pass Assemblers 653 Input Modes 677

Macros 653 . Scanned Keyboard 677

The Stack and Subroutines 653 . Scanned Sensor Matrix 678

Subroutines - Conditional Calls and . Strobed Input 678

Returns 654 Output Modes 678

Modular Program Structures 655 Hardware Description 679

. ROM (Read-Only-Memory) 656 Principles of Operation 681

. RWM (Read-Write-Memory) 656 I/O Control and Data Buffers 681

Analog Data Input and Output 657 Control and Timing Registers and

Microprocessor To D/A Converter Timing Control 681

Interface 657 Scan Counter 682

Multichannel Data Acquisition Return Buffers and Keyboard 682

Systems 660 Debounce and Control 682

Eight-Bit 80C31 Embedded Processor 663 FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status 683

Section I 663 Display Address Registers and

Micro-Controllers 663 Display RAM 683

8051 Family Overview 663 Software Operation 683

Members of the Family 663 8279 Commands 683

80C51BH / 80C31BH / 87C51 664 Keyboard/Display Mode Set 683

Memory Organization in 8051 Family Program Clock 684

Devices 665 Read FIFO/Sensor RAM 685

Program Memory 666 Display RAM 685

Data Memory 667 Write RAM 685

Chapter 2 - 8051 Family Architecture 671 Display Write Inhibit/Blanking 686

Introduction 672 Clear 686

Chapter 3 672 End Interrupt/Error Mode Set 687

Programmer's Guide 673 Status Word 688

Introduction 673 Data Read - Data Write 688

Memory Organization 673 Interface Consideration 688

Program Memory 673 . Scanned Keyboard Mode

Chapter 4 674 2-Key Lockout 688

Instruction Set 674 . Scanned Keyboard Mode

Chapter 5 674 N-Key Rollover 689

80C51 Family 674 . Sensor Matrix Mode 689

_____________________________________ . Data Format 690

MODULE TWENTY . Display 691

FOUR-OCTAVE 16-TONE-BANK ORGAN . Right Entry 691

Hardware and Software Organization . Auto Increment 693

 

 

 

 

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. 8/16 Character Program of Keyboard 723

Display Formats 695 Handling the 1st Sensor RAM Byte 723

. FIFO 695 Handling the 2nd Sensor RAM Byte 725

LCD Module PC4002 with Integrated Handling the 3rd Sensor RAM Byte 727

LED Backlight 697 Handling the 4th Sensor RAM Byte 729

Register Select Signal 700 Handling the 5th Sensor RAM Byte 731

Contrast Adjustment Voltage 700 Handling the Last Sensor RAM Byte 733

LED Features 701 Enabling Further Reading into the

Keyboard 701 Sensor RAM 735

Minimum System 702 Data Transfer to the Main-Sound-

Software Partitions 706 Generator-Board 736

8279 Initialization 706 First Octave 740

Software Operation 706 Second Octave 740

Keyboard/Display Mode Set 706 Third Octave 745

Program Clock 706 Fourth Octave 749

Read FIFO/Sensor RAM 707 Character Transfer to LCD Via 8279 754

Write Display RAM 707 Substituting RB0..RB5 with RB6..RB11 754

Display Write Inhibit/Blanking 707 Reading Sensor RAM Bytes 754

Clear 708 The END 755

End Interrupt/Error Mode Set 708 ____________________________________

Software Organization 708 MODULE TWENTY ONE

EQU 709 HARMONIC MANIPULATORS

Start 709

Interrupt 0 Routines 709 Harmonic Manipulator 757

Device Addressing Access 711 Fourier Series (Mathematical Rules) 757

Enabled-Addresses 711 Stage Explanation 758

Main-Board Oscillator-Latch Crystal-Harmonic-Analogous-

Addresses 712 Manipulator (Single Note) 759

System's Initializations Digitally-Controlled Harmonic

Handling Keyboard 714 Manipulator 764

Scanned Data 714 Logical Terminals 768

The Effect of Keyboard-Scanned Data Software Routines 770

on the Main-Board 717 The Complete Software 772

Transmitting Desired Data to the Main Program 773

LCD Display 717 Program of Keyboard 776

Extra Facilities 719 VCO Organ 790

The Whole Software 719 Notes 793

Bit Addressable Segments 720 Software Hints 794

Main Program 720 Notes 794

Initialization and Start Pattern of the Frequency,

LCD 722 Analog Data,

Writing Command to the LCD Module 722 Corresponding Digital Data,

Power on LCD Messages 722 Table 794

 

 

 

 

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___________________________________

MODULE TWENTY TWO Recording a Sound File 845

DIGITAL PERCUSSION Effects Menu Commands 846

Audio Recorder Contents 847

Percussion Systems 797 Introduction 847

Early Days Percussion Systems 797 Staring The Audio Recorder 848

Transversal Filters 798 Making a Recording 848

Transversal Filter Simulation System 800 Using Waveform Display 849

Logical Terminals 804 Changing Several Attributes 850

The Complete Software 805 Edit Menu 851

Main Program 806 Options Menu 852

Program of CCD Simulation 807 Effects Menu 852

END 809 The Audio Clip Library 853

Analog Transversal Filter 810 Introduction 853

Digital Music Recording & Playback 811 Starting The Audio Clip Library 854

Percussion Paging (Drum Machine) 813 Audio Rack Contents 854

Logical Terminals 816 The Command Center 855

Register Structure of the Software 817 Introduction 855

The Complete Software 818 The Digital Audio Player 855

Main Program 819 System's Requirements 856

Keyboard Scanning Data Routine 825 Recording a File 856

Interrupt 0 Routine 825 A Note about Recording 857

END 828 Digital Audio Player Menu Options 857

Percussion On PCs 830 The Compact Disk Player 858

Interfacing 832 The MIDI Player 858

RS-232-C to TTL Converter 832 The MIDI Player Display 858

The Software 833 The Controls 859

Listing 21/1 834 The Mixer 860

Sending Musical Data Program 836 The Controls 861

A Convax Supporting Software 839 The Mixer 861

Convax (On Parallel Port) Software 840 The Mixer Window 862

_____________________________________ Contents for Media Player Help 862

MODULE TWENTY THREE Opening a File 863

SOFTWARE MUSICS Playing a Media Device 863

Specifying a Media Device 864

Software Music 841 Changing the Scale 865

Microsoft Windows Audio Programs 841 File Menu Commands 865

Contents for Sound Recorder 841 Device Menu Commands 866

Adding Echo to The Sound 842 The Extended Recorder 867

Deleting a Part of a Sound File 842 Introduction 867

Inserting Another Sound File 843 Starting the Extended Recorder 867

Making a Sound Softer or Louder 843 The Internet 868

Mixing In Another Sound File 844 Using Windows NT in Connection To

Playing a Sound File 844 The Internet 870

 

 

 

 

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Live Music and Video Playback On Tips and Tricks 902

The Web 872 More on the MIDI Interface 903

Sound on the PC 875 Delux Music Construction Set 904

8253 Timer 875 Public Domain Music Programs 905

Ports and PC Sound 876 MED - The Music Editor 905

Demonstration Program 876 Other Programs 906

How They Work? 877 Make Sounds 906

Note 878 CUCUG JukeBox Disks 907

Assembly Listing 878 CUCUG Sound Effect Disks 909

Directory of Windows Audio ____________________________________

Software 882 MODULE TWENTY FIVE

_____________________________________ HARDWARE MUSIC

MODULE TWENTY FOUR

MAKING MUSIC ON THE AMIGA Hardware Music 911

The Audio Hardware of the Amiga 911

Languages 889 Hardware and audio.device

AmigaBASIC 889 Programming 912

The SOUND Command 889 Hardware Extensions 913

. Frequency 889 MIDI Interface 913

. Duration 890 Sound Digitizer 916

. Volume 890 Sampling Routine for Digitizing 918

. Channel 890 Other MIDI Applications 920

The WAVE Command 890 MIDI Interface Options 921

Example Program 891 Saving Sounds 922

Pseudo-Classical Music 891 Sequences 922

IFF and SMUS Formats 893 MIDI & Delux Music Construction Set 923

IFF Standard 893 MIDI and Sonix 923

ISS 8SVX Format 893 Using MIDI Patch 924

IFF SMUS Format 893 Tips and Tricks for Sampling 925

Music Software 897 List of MIDI Codes 925

Sonix 897 Glossary Terms 928

Tips and Tricks 898 MIDI PEDAL - Construction Project 931

Changing Instruments 898 MASTER BITS 937

Echo 898 Sound Cards 937

Using IFF Instruments 898 WAVE REPORT - December 1994 938

Audio Master II 899 CD/CD-ROM - TOP-10 944

Special FX Menu 900 IMPORT-CDs / CD-ROMs 945

Tips and Tricks 900 WAVE REPORT - March 1994 951

Sampling with Audio Master II 900 PRODUCTION LINE 1996 971

Parallel Port 900 Computer Select Articles - Sept 1995 983

Joystick Port 901 MIDI Masters 983

The Oscilloscope 901 Roland's RAP-10/ATB 985

Dynamic Drums 901 Orchid SoundWave 32 988

 

 

 

 

(Page 15)

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Roland's SCD-15 Sound Convax GS MODULE TWENTY SEVEN

Reforms 16-Bit Sound Cards 995 THE COMPARISON BETWEEN

Roland SoundConvax DB GM 997 COMMERCIAL ORGANS

You Can Be A One-Man Band! 998

_____________________________________ YAMAHA PSR 400-500 (PORTATONE) 1032

MODULE TWENTY SIX YAMAHA PSR-A3 (PORTATONE) 1034

RESEARCH SYSTEMS The Demonstration 1037

Digital Effects 1037

Advanced Systems Idea 999 About The PSR-A3 Styles 1037

Touch Response Circuit Idea 1000 Using Arabic Scales 1038

Digitally-Controlled Graphic Iranian Musical Instrument and

Equalizer 1002 Systems 1038

Circuit Hints 1003 Song Recording 1040

Quantisation 1005 The Multi Pads 1040

Manual Quantisation 1006 PSR 400-500 Owner's Guide 1041

Complete Software 1006 YAMAHA PSR-A3 Owner's Manual 1045

Main Program 1007 Roland E-86 - The Intelligent

Program of Keyboard 1009 Synthesizer 1081

END 1014 E-86 MIDI Implementation 1083

Simulation of Accompaniment 1015 E-86 Owner's Manual 1111

Adding Fill in, Intro, and Ending 1016 E-86 MIDI Guidebook 1131

Serial Transmission of Musical Data 1017 Other Sound Cards and

Serial Interface of 8031 1017 Sound Discussions 1145

Serial Port Control Register 1018 Choosing Data Acquisition Boards

Baud Rates 1019 and Softwares 1169

Generate Baud Rates Using Timer 1 1020 ____________________________________

RESEARCH SYSTEMS 1022

Musical Separating Expert System 1022 Bibliography

System's Description 1023 MY C.V

The Quality Betterment of a ____________________________________

Recorded Sound Media 1024 THE END OF THE FIRST TWO BOOKS

. Spectral Attenuation 1026

. Hi-Frequency Noise-Added 1026 ____________________________________

. Low-Frequency Noise-Added 1027 THE APPENDICES

Noise Reduction Systems 1027

Synth-Percussion 1027 Musical and Vocal ICs

A Special Remixing System On STK - Power Amplifier Hybrids

Playback Systems 1028 BOSS SE-70 Algorithm Guide

Dynamic Head System 1029 BOSS SE-70 System's Implementations

Song's Commencement Indicator 80C51 Family User Guide

System 1029 Miscellaneous Appendices

(THE END OF THE FOURTH BOOK)

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(Page 16)

 

A Complete review on the Sound Behaviors and Systems 1-266

BOSS SE-70 Super Effects Processor 267 Listing One, Two, and Three 298

Mono-Stereo Echo & Reverb System 267 Parts List 299

Delay Factors 267 Construction 300

Input Procedure 268 Testing 300

Delaying Stages 261-B Different Connections 301

Clock Pulse Generator (CPG) 261-B Allophones 301

Electronic Parts 262-B Shop 303

Electronic Echo 264-B Speech Therapy 307

Methods of Delaying 264-B Auxiliary Circuits 309

About the Circuit 266-B Voice Changer System 309

Supply 266-B . Preamplifier 309

Digital Reverberation System 269-B . Wave Forming 309

Quadruple Analog Switches . Oscillator (CPG) 310

(2X1 Make and 2X1 Break) 269 The Complete System 310

The Digital Reverb and Musical Parts List 314

Digitizing System 271 A Pseudo-Stereo Adaptateur 316

The System's Capabilities 271 Parts List 319

The System's Description 273 Mock Stereo 321

. (A) Echo System 273 Filter 321

. (B) Recording and Playback Three Channel Mixing 323

of Musical Data 274 Parts List 324

The Process of Recording Musical Phasing Unit 326

Notes 275 Headphone Amplifier 329

Hardware Description 276 Parts List 330

. Micro-controller 276 Circuit Ideas 333

. Program Memory 276 Echo System (Stringless) 333

. Data Memory 276 Echo System (with String) 333

. Key-Pad 276 Mono-to Stereo Converter 334

. Display 276 Vocal Vibrato System 334

. Input Stage 276 Three Guitar Phase Shifters 335

. Output Stage 277 Madonna Effect 336

. Key-Pad Circuit 277 ____________________________________

. Display Circuit 278

. Input Stage 279 ADVANCED RESEARCH SYSTEM IDEAS

. Output Stage 279

Hints for the Software Organization 279 Advanced Research Systems 339

. (A) Echo 279 Vocal Intelligent Processor 339

. (B) Record and Edit 280 Spectral Comparison Technique 339

Routines For Echo, Recording and Hardware Limitations 340

Playback 281 Principle of the Operation 341

Speaker Board 295 Musical Speech Processor 342

How it Works 296 ____________________________________

The Circuit 297 THE END OF THE THIRD BOOK